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Flashcards in The protection of Antartica Deck (35)
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What is adaptation?

Any alteration or adjustment in the structure or function of an organism or system which enables it to survive better in changing environmental conditions


What is mitigation?

Includes any actions, strategies, measures or projects undertaken to offset the known detrimental impacts of a process


What is resilience?

The amount of disturbance that an ecosystem can withstand without changing existing structures and processes


What components are changing too quickly for species to adapt in Antartica?

Increasing sea temperatures
Ocean acidification
Expanding sea ice cover in some areas
Loss of sea ice and land ice cover in other areas
Higher intensities of ultraviolet radiation


What are the four threats to Antartica?

Climate change
Fishing and whaling
Search for mineral resources
Tourism and scientific research


How is climate change a threat to Antartica?

Temp in the southern ocean to the west of Antartica have increased
Sea ice in east is increasing
Oceanic acidification


What impacts is an increase in temp in the southern ocean having on the west of Antartica?

Changed distribution of penguin colonies
Decline in Antarctic Krill
Retreat of glaciers and ice shelves fringing the peninsula


Why is East Antartica experiencing an increase in sea ice?

Increased westerly winds around the Southern Ocean driving seas northwards
More rain and snow resulting from climate chance layering the southern ocean with cooler, denser air
Greater melting of continental land ice creating more floating icebergs which contribute to sea ice formation


Why is Antartica experiencing oceanic acidification?

CO2 in the atmosphere creates carbonic acid, which makes the ocean less alkaline. The loss of carbonate ions lead to waters becoming corrosive to unprotected shells and the loss of these organisms will disrupt food webs


What happened in 1985?

Globally most whaling stopped due to the action of the International Whaling Commission


What happened in 1994?

The IWC established the Southern Ocean Whaling Sanctuary, which banned commercial whaling


Who opposed the southern ocean whaling sanctuary agreement?

Japan, Norway and Iceland


What has replaced whaling in the area?



What fish in particular has been over-fished?



What are krill?

Tiny shrimp-like crustaceans which swim in massive numbers


Why are Krill so important?

Krill underpin the entire food chain in Antartica


Why are Krill being fished?

As a health protein food in East Asia and a health food supplement in the form of krill oil all over the world


Why are Krill so good for you?

They are an excellent source of protein and krill oil
Extremely rich in omega-3 fatty acids


What has a sudden recent demand for krill products caused?

A dramatic increase in krill fishing in the Southern Ocean


Why is the search for mineral resources a threat to Antartica?

Mining is banned by the Antarctic Treaty. Demand for resources puts pressure on the mineral resources on the continent, which include gold, silver, lead and zinc


What are the concerns of tourism and scientific research on Antartica?

Summer tourists coincide with peak wildlife and breeding
There is evidence of the over-flying causing to breeding colonies


What types of tourism does Antartica experience?

Camping trips, ship-boarding sites, over-flights


What research shows that tourism doesn't affect Antartica?

Well-run industry
Rules are accepted by operators
Damage to vegetation is from natural causes
No litter is from tourists
No stress is caused to penguins from tourists


Out of 200 landing sites, how many show any wear and tear in Antartica?



What is the Antarctic treaty system?

The main remedy for the international governance of Antartica


Why did nations agree to the ATS?

Avoid disagreements and conflict
Resolve disputes over ownership and mining rights
Establish guidelines to limit development on the continent


Who signed the ATS?

12 nations


What is the purpose of the Madrid Protocol 1991?

To give additional protection to Antartica, especially against mineral exploitation


Who are the three main players involved in mitigating and protecting Antartica?

Antarctic Treaty System
The Madrid Protocol 1991
International Whaling Commission


What is the purpose of The Madrid Protocol 1991?

Give additional protection to Antartica, especially against mineral exploitation