Flashcards in The red eye Deck (18):
What is blepharitis?
-can be anterior or posterior
What is anterior blepharitis? how does this affect the conjunctiva? what else can this involve?
• Inflammation of the lid margin is concentrated in the lash line can accompanied by squamous debris around the eyelashes
• Conjunctiva becomes injected
• In severe disease cornea is affected
• Small infiltrates or ulcers may form in the peripheral cornea
What causes anterior blepharitis?
Seborrhoeic (squamous) scales on the lashes
Staphylococcal – infection involving the lash follicle
Lid margin redder than deeper part of lid
What are the clinical signs seen in seberrhoeic blepharitis?
Lid margin red
(No ulceration, lashes unaffected)
What are the clinical signs seen in staphylococcal blepharitis?
-lid margin red
-Lashes distorted, loss of lashes, ingrowing lashes - trichiasis
-Styes, ulcers of lid margin
-corneal staining, marginal ulcers (due to exotoxin)
What is posterior blepharitis ? what is it also known as?
• This is also known as meibomian gland dysfunction
Meibomian glands are usually obstructed by squamous debris
How is posterior blepharitis different from anterior blepharitis?
redness is in deeper part of lid
lid margin often quite normal looking
What are the signs seen in posterior blepharitis? what is this also assoc. with?
-Lid margin skin and lashes unaffected
-M.G. openings pouting & swollen
-Inspissated (dried) secretion at gland openings
-Meibomian Cysts (chalazia)
--Associated with Acne Rosacea (50%)
How is anterior and posterior blepharitis managed?
Lid hygiene – daily bathing / warm compresses
Supplementary tear drops
Oral doxycycline for 2-3 months
Very difficult to eradicate
What is anterior uveitis also known as?
What are the different:
causes of anterior uveitis
-Reiter’s, ulcerative colitis, ankylosing spondylitis, sarcoidosis
-T.B, syphilis, herpes simplex, herpes zoster
-Idiopathic, traumatic, secondary to other eye disorders
What are the symptoms of anterior uveitis?
Pain (+ referred pain)
Vision may be reduced
Red eye (circumcorneal)
nb often missed and treated as conjunctivitis
What are the signs seen in anterior uveitis
Ciliary injection (i.e. circum-corneal )
Cells & flare in anterior chamber
Synechiae – causes irregular pupil iris adheres to cornea or lens
Small or irregular pupil
What is the treatment of anterior uveitis?
Pred Forte 1% Hourly tapering over 4-8 weeks
Cyclopentolate 1% BD
investigate for systemic associations if recurrent or chronic
What is episcleritis? is this common? what is this assoc. with? What is the treatment?
inflamation of the episclera
-Relatively common / no serious associations
-Association with gout
-Nodules may occur
-Lubricants / topical NSAIDs / mild steroids
What is scleritis?
what is this assoc. with?
what symptoms/signs seen?
what is the treatment?
-Association with serious systemic vasculitides e.g. Rh arthritis, Wegener’s
-Injection of deep vascular plexus – ‘violaceous hue’
-Associated uveitis common
-Steroid Sparing Agents
Acute closed angle glaucoma:
-what is this?
-what are the clinical features?
-IOP rises acutely due to the drainage angle being closed (pupil dilatation precipitates it)
-Elderly* hypermetropic – thick glasses
-Severe pain + nausea
-Cornea cloudy (oedematous)
-Pupil mid dilated
-Eye stony hard