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Ophthalmology > The Red Eye > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Red Eye Deck (100)
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1

What causes a red eye

Acute angle closure glaucoma
Anterior uveitis
Posterior uveitis
Episcleritis
Scleritis
Conjunctivitis
Subconjunctival haemorrhage
Endophthalmitis
Keratitis
Thyroid eye
Cellulitis

2

What are easily treated conditions

Conjunctivitis
Subconjunctival haemorrhage
Episcleritis

3

What requires urgent treatment or sight threatening

Glaucoma
Anterior uveitis
Sclertiis
Keratits / corneal ulcer

4

What are important initial questions when someone presents with red eye

Is vision affected / double vision
Floaters in vision
Halo in vision
Any pain / photophobia / pain on eye movement
Any headache
Any discharge
Any itch
Any surgery or trauma
Contact lens use
Hx sinusitis

5

What do you ask about pain

SOCRATES
Type of pain - gritty / dull / sharp
Pain on eye movement
What makes it better - drops ?
Makes worse - light or movement

6

What do you ask about contact lenses

Type of lenses
How it is cleaned
How long in eye
How often they were
When was light assessment

7

If vision affected what does this suggest

Sight threatening
Glaucoma
Keratits / ulcer
Uveitis
Scleritis
Trauma

8

What does halo + eye pain / headache suggest

Acute angle closure glaucoma

9

If halo / glare only

Suggests early cataract

10

If red eye + pain on movement

Optic neuritis
Posterior scleritis

11

What can cause floaters + red eye

Uveitis
Endothalmitis
Post-trauma

12

What do all floaters in eye require

Urgent assessment to exclude vitreous detachment/retinal tear

13

What causes unilateral Sx

Galucoma
Scleritis
Ulcer
Bacterial conjunctivitis but spreads

14

What is typical bilateral

Dry eyes
Viral conjunctivitis
Allergy

15

If discharge + normal vision

Conjunctivitis

16

What do you ask about discharge

Watery
Mucous = viral
Purulent = bacterial

17

What if abnormal vision + discharge

Keratitis
Neonatal from maternal birth canal

18

What does itch suggest

Allergy
Dry eyes
Blepharitis

19

What does painful WHITE eye suggest

Vitreous detachment
Vitreous haemorrhage
Retinal detachment

20

What is anterior uveitis (iritis)

Inflammation of anterior portion of eye - iris + ciliary body

21

What causes anterior uveitis

Inflammation
Autoimmnue
Infectious
Malignancy
Local

Idiopathic = 80%

Inflammation
- AS xxx
- RA xxx
- Reactive arthritis
- IBD

Autoimmune
- SLE
- Sarcoid
- Vasculitis
- Bechet's (mouth ulcer) xxx

Infections
- Syphillis
- HSV
- TB
- CMV
- Lyme's
- Toxo

Malignancy
- Intra-ocualr lymphoma

Local
- Cataract
- Retinal detachment

22

How does anterior uveitis present

Acute onset
Red painful eye
Intense photophobia
Marked around cornea
No blanching
Increased lacrimation
Minimal discharge
Iris vessel injected
Macular oedema
Blurred vision
Floaters if ciliary body involved
Ciliary flush

23

What happens to pupil

Small
Irregular due to adhesions (synchiae - lens sticks to iris)

24

What happens to vision

Blurred
Floaters if ciliary body involved

25

What is a ciliary flush

Hue at limbus (junction between cornea and sclera)
Signifies dilation of vessels

26

What is normal in uveitis

Pressure in eye
Cornea
Posterior section
NO HALO - would suggest raised IOP

27

What gene associated

HLA-B27

28

How do you Dx

Urgent opthamology
Slit lamp

29

What does slit lamp show

Leakage of cells into AH
- Hypopyon
- Plasma
- WBC

30

How do you Rx

Steroid eye drop + mydriatic eye drop to relieve pain as dilates = 1st line
Systemic steroid if recurrent
Immunosuppression