Flashcards in The Skin Deck (30):
What are the 3 main layers of the skin?
Epidermis, Dermis and Subcutaneous
Name the 6 layers of the dermis
S. corneum, S. lucidium, S. granular, S. spinoseum, S basale, basement membrane
Describe the functions of the dermis
Thermoregulation, provides the epidermis with nutrients and for strength and elasticity
What holds the epidermis and dermis together?
What 3 glands do you find in the dermis?
Eccrine, apocrine and sebaceous
Describe eccrine glands
Sweat glandss that are mostly found on your palms, soles of the feet and the axilla
Describe apocrine glands
Scent glands found in axilla and genitals
Describe sebaceous glands
Provide lipids that lubricates hair shaft. Found everywhere apart from palms and soles of the feet
Describe the function of Stratum corneum
Waterproofs the skin
Describe the function of Stratum granular
Contains grnaular cells that contain keratohyalin. Therefore, the main function of keratohyalin granules is to bind intermediate keratin filaments together
Describe the function of Stratum spinosum
Provides the skin with strength and flexibility. elp the skin retain moisture and natural emollients that can keep the epidermis lubricated. Langerhans cells are present
Describe the function of Stratum basal
Site of keratinocyte production
Describe the function of Basement membrane
site of cell division
Where do hair cells grow from?
What are hair cells made of?
Dead keratinised epithelial cells
Name the 3 pigments of the skin that provide it with its colour
Haemoglobin, melanin and carotene
Describe the skins protective function
Acts as a barrier
Describe the skins physiological regulation function
Thermoregulation ie. sweat and goosebumps
Describe the skins sensory function
Allows for sense and touch
What type of epithelium is found in the epidermis?
stratified squamous epithelium
What do keratinocytes produce and what is its function?
Keratin - helps to protect the skin
What type of glands do keratinocyte produce and what is their function?
Lamellar glands - help to waterproof the skin
What holds keratinocytes together?
Describe the structure of keratinocytes
Change from square shaped to flat as they become engorged with keratin, mature then die becoming flat
What do melanocytes produce and what is its function?
Melanin - absorbs UV light to protect the skin. Also helps give skin its colour
Describe the structure of melanocytes
Have protrusions that help to transport melanin to keratinocytes to protect them from UV light
What can chronic UV damage result in?
1. DNA damage - p53 tumour suppressor gene - causing cancer
2. Abnormal skin pigmentation
3. Wrinkles and premature ageing
4. Blood vessel haemorrhaging
Describe the function of Merkel cells
Sensory cells that act as touch receptors
Describe the function of Langerhans cells
These are defence cells that look for presenting antigens and carry out immune surveillance