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Phase 1 week 1 - the skin > The Skin > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Skin Deck (30):
1

What are the 3 main layers of the skin?

Epidermis, Dermis and Subcutaneous

2

Name the 6 layers of the dermis

S. corneum, S. lucidium, S. granular, S. spinoseum, S basale, basement membrane

3

Describe the functions of the dermis

Thermoregulation, provides the epidermis with nutrients and for strength and elasticity

4

What holds the epidermis and dermis together?

Dermo-epidermal bridge

5

What 3 glands do you find in the dermis?

Eccrine, apocrine and sebaceous

6

Describe eccrine glands

Sweat glandss that are mostly found on your palms, soles of the feet and the axilla

7

Describe apocrine glands

Scent glands found in axilla and genitals

8

Describe sebaceous glands

Provide lipids that lubricates hair shaft. Found everywhere apart from palms and soles of the feet

9

Describe the function of Stratum corneum

Waterproofs the skin

10

Describe the function of Stratum granular

Contains grnaular cells that contain keratohyalin. Therefore, the main function of keratohyalin granules is to bind intermediate keratin filaments together

11

Describe the function of Stratum spinosum

Provides the skin with strength and flexibility. elp the skin retain moisture and natural emollients that can keep the epidermis lubricated. Langerhans cells are present

12

Describe the function of Stratum basal

Site of keratinocyte production

13

Describe the function of Basement membrane

site of cell division

14

Where do hair cells grow from?

The dermis

15

What are hair cells made of?

Dead keratinised epithelial cells

16

Name the 3 pigments of the skin that provide it with its colour

Haemoglobin, melanin and carotene

17

Describe the skins protective function

Acts as a barrier

18

Describe the skins physiological regulation function

Thermoregulation ie. sweat and goosebumps

19

Describe the skins sensory function

Allows for sense and touch

20

What type of epithelium is found in the epidermis?

stratified squamous epithelium

21

What do keratinocytes produce and what is its function?

Keratin - helps to protect the skin

22

What type of glands do keratinocyte produce and what is their function?

Lamellar glands - help to waterproof the skin

23

What holds keratinocytes together?

Desmosomes

24

Describe the structure of keratinocytes

Change from square shaped to flat as they become engorged with keratin, mature then die becoming flat

25

What do melanocytes produce and what is its function?

Melanin - absorbs UV light to protect the skin. Also helps give skin its colour

26

Describe the structure of melanocytes

Have protrusions that help to transport melanin to keratinocytes to protect them from UV light

27

What can chronic UV damage result in?

1. DNA damage - p53 tumour suppressor gene - causing cancer
2. Abnormal skin pigmentation
3. Wrinkles and premature ageing
4. Blood vessel haemorrhaging

28

Describe the function of Merkel cells

Sensory cells that act as touch receptors

29

Describe the function of Langerhans cells

These are defence cells that look for presenting antigens and carry out immune surveillance

30

Describe the function of stratum lucidum

It is responsible for the capability of the skin to stretch. It contains a protein that is responsible for the degeneration of skin cells