The Sonoran and the Mojave deserts Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in The Sonoran and the Mojave deserts Deck (15)
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Why are the Sonoran and the Mojave deserts dry?

The mountains (Sierra Nevada and the Rocky mountains) create a rain shadow causing aridity.


Where are the Sonoran and the Mojave deserts located?

In Arizona.


How big is the grand canyon?

At its widest point the Grand Canyon stretches 18 miles (29 kilometres) across.
The Grand Canyon is around 6000 (1800 metres) feet deep.


Where is the grand canyon located?

Located in the Sonoran/Mojave desert regions.


How is the area of the grand canyon protected?

The Grand Canyon is a designated National Park (17th established in the US) which preserves the natural landscape from forms of damaging activities. It has federal protection by the Wilderness Act and is regularly surveyed.


Economic opportunities.
What were the earnings form tourism, tourism numbers, and how many jobs did this support in Arizona?

4.3 million visitors spent $467,257,000 and supported 7,361 jobs in Arizona in 2011 (direct and indirect employment, foreign currency earnings)


Economic opportunities.
How did tourists to the grand canyon contribute to the wider areas?

Grand Canyon NP visitors made over $500 billion in 2013 and also travelled to surrounding areas up to 60 miles away contributing $15.7 billion of spending supporting over 200,000 jobs nationally


Economic opportunities.
Describe a recreational activity that uses the river.

Rafting on the Colorado River is a recreational opportunity. Over 22,000 people rafted on the Colorado River through Grand Canyon National Park in 2001, resulting in an estimated $21,100,000 (foreign currency earnings)


Economic opportunities.
Describe the variety of tourist activities in the grand canyon.

Large variety of tourist activities (air tours, accommodation [Grand Canyon National Park Lodges with 7 restaurants, mule rides and gift shops] and ‘Around the Rim’ hiking tours in which you can bike, use mules, use jeeps or hike)


Economic opportunities.
What is allowed for a set time to promote tourism?

• On the Colorado River there is a ‘motorised use’ season from April 1st to September 1st to promote tourism. This requires a permit and there is a maximum trip length of 12 days in this time, lower than non-motor vehicles use to protect the Grand Canyon.


Economic opportunities.
Describe the Grand canyon sky walk.

The Grand Canyon Skywalk is a horseshoe-shaped concrete structure extending 70ft from the rim of the canyon, it is built on Hualapai Indian land who will receive half the profits made. This will benefit the 2200 strong tribe by preventing unemployment and poverty. Their reservation will also benefit, as previously only 300,000 visited the reserve compared to the 4 million to the park.


Social, economic and environmental challenges created by development.
What restricts the space available for locals?

SunPower is set to build a 579 megawatt facility in the Antelope Valley on nearly 7.4 square miles of agricultural land.
Sheep farmers will lose land in a proposed tourist facility at the confluence of Little Colorado River and the Colorado River. Water would be taken from the Colorado River (277 miles go through the Grand Canyon) which is a water source for over 30 million people. The proposed facility will have hotels, a tram and parking areas


What are the social challenges created by development?

The Grand Canyon Skywalk was built on sacred land, damaging the ancient site historically important to the Hualapai Indian and encouraging litter.
In 2014, 15 deaths occurred as a result of fast currents and high water in the Colorado river
over 50% of all rafting-related expenditures were not captured by the regional economy and many of the jobs created by the rafting industry are lower-wage and seasonal (low paid, low skilled and seasonal jobs)


What are the environmental challenges created by development?

Water in some streams has been tainted with faecal coliform from trespass cattle and from human
Air pollution has routinely drifted into the Canyon from metropolitan areas and nearby coal-fired power plants (such as the Navajo Generating Station) which also restricts visibility
People abandon gear and litter in the area which endangers wildlife and presents a visual problem
Cities such as Phoenix have replaced deserts covered with cacti and creosote bushes
An airport was built (the Grand Canyon Park Airport) which produces noise pollution


What are the economic challenges created by development?

High visitor numbers (4.3 million in 2011) detracts the quality of the visitor experience