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Flashcards in The Structure of Matter Deck (54):
1

Formed by the chemical union of two or more elements in definite proportions

Complex Compounds

2

What is all matter made up of?

Atoms

3

Atomos mean

Greek for atom, meaning uncut

4

What is the most widely held theory of atomic structure?

Bohr atom

5

When was the Bohr Atom first proposed?

In 1913 by Niels Bohr

6

What are the (4) symbolic representations of matter?

1. Medieval Atom (air, water, fire earth
2. Dalton Atom (hooks and eyelits)
3. Thomson atom (pudding)
4. Bohr Atom (orbiting nucleus)

7

What are protons?

Parts that make up an atom

8

How big are Protons?

Almost 2,000 times the size of electrons

9

What is the charge of a proton?

Positive

10

Are all protons identical?

Yes, but each element has it's own characteristic number of protons

11

Every element must have at least ____ proton.

One

12

Neutrons:

-No charge
-Same mass as the proton

13

Protons:

-Positively charged
-Small mass
-Part that make up an atom
-1,850 times mass of e-

14

The positively charged nucleus contains most of the _____ of an atom.

Mass

15

What type of charge does an e- have?

1 negative charge

16

Electrons:

-Negatively charged
-Extremely small mass
-Orbit the nucleus in specific energy levels/orbits shells

17

Shells are named according to their distance from the nucleus starting with the letter...

K

18

Each shell can only hold a specified maximum number of e-? T/F

True
Once filled electrons must go into another shell

19

What are the number of electrons in each shell?

K-2
L-8
M-18
N-32
O-50
P-72
Q-98

20

What is the formula for the maximum # of Electrons per shell?

2n (squared)

21

What is the maximum number of e- that can exist in the "P"orbit?

72

22

What are the two charged particles in an atom?

Proton & Electron

23

What is a neutral atom?

The total number of orbital electrons equals the total number of protons in the nucleus

24

What is the atomic number?

# of protons in the nucleus

25

What distinguishes each elements from all the other elements?

The atomic number

26

What is the symbol for atomic number?

Z

27

Where is the majority of the mass on an atom located?

In its nucleus (protons, neutrons)

28

What is the sum of the # of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of the atom?

Mass number

29

What is the symbol for Mass Number?

A

30

What is the shorthand notation used to denote a specific element or isotope of an element?

Chemical Symbol

31

What is an isotope?

Atoms of the same element having different mass numbers

32

What specifically about isotopes makes them different?

The number of neutrons in the nucleus

33

What are isobars?

Two or more atoms with the same atomic weight (mass #) but with different atomic numbers

34

Two or more atoms with the same molecular formula, but different physical and chemical properties

Isomer

35

What is an example of an Isomer?

H2O
-Water
-Steam
-Ice

36

Two or more atoms with the same # of neutrons, but having different # of protons in the nucleus...

Isotone

37

What is a Z#?

Atomic #

38

What is an A#?

Mass #

39

What is binding energy?

Energy required to remove an e- from a particular shell and beyond the range of the nucleus

40

The closer a shell is to the nucleus the _____ the binding energy>

Greater

41

The higher the Z#, the _____ the binding energy

Greater

42

On the periodic table, what is the group # (roman numeral?)

# of electrons in the outer shell

43

On the periodic table, what is the period #?

# of electron shells

44

How is chemical behavior determined?

By the property of elements that is determined by the number of e- in the outer shell

45

What is the octet rule?

An atom tends to be chemically stable when its outer shell contains exactly 8 e-

46

What is the only exception to the octet rule?

Helium, it has 2 e- in the outer shell

47

What are ions?

Atoms that either lose or gain e-

48

What is a valence?

Number of e- lost, gained or shared by an atom in chemical combination

49

What are bonds?

Two or more elements are joined together by one of several different types of chemical bonds

50

What are ionic bonds?

-Bonds between 2 ions
-Trasnfer of e- between the elements

51

What is a covalent bond?

Sharing of e- between 2 or more atoms

52

What does ionization mean?

The process of converting atoms to ions

53

How does ionization happen?

Exclusively by the addition or removal of outer shell e-

54

What are the (4) types of ionization?

-Exposure of matter to x-rays or gamma rays
-Exposure of matter to a stream of electrons
-Exposure of certain elements to light (fluoro)
-Thermionic Emission