1604 - Treaty of London
Ended war with Spain - James, the peacemaker King
1613 - marriage
James’ daughter Elizabeth marries Frederick of the Palatinate (Protestant)
The Spanish Match
James attempt to marry Charles to marry the Spanish infanta. £600,000 dowry.
Parl = NO, Howard family = YES, Spanish = NO
1921 - The Addled Parliament - Parliamentary protestation
Anticipating war and a need for money James allows Parliament to discuss wat. They criticise the Spanish match, James gets angry, Parl passes the protestation, James tears the page from the book and dissolves the parliament
1623 - The Trip to Madrid
Jack and Tom Smith, Charles and Buckingham, go to try and see the Spanish Infanta. They are not allowed in. Embarrasment and calls for war.
Buck wanted an anti-Hapsburg alliance (wanted an ally with France and wanted a military alliance to restore Fred)
Marriage to HM BUT HM and children can practice Catholicism, England has to be more tolerant to Catholics, They will help French against the Hugenots, no mention of a military alliance against the Spanish
1603 - Recusancy fines reduced
Fines for Catholics not attending church
1603 Millenary petition
Puritan petition calling for an end to Catholic practices, bowing, robes etc
1604 - Recusancy fines returned to their original value, Hampton Court conference
Recusancy fines returned to their original value
Hampton Court conference - to discuss the petition, led to the James 1 Bible.
1604 Bancroft Canons
Upheld practices - robes etc
1606 Oath of Allegiance
all must declare allegiance to the monarch over the Pope and laws were passed to stop Catholics living near London and holding public office
1611 - George Abbott - Archbishop of Canterbury
Tolerance for Puritans, But there was a growing prominence of Arminians in Court.
1624 - Richard Montagu
‘A new gag for an old goose’ criticising Puritanism and not censored by James 1
Ordinary revenue is…..
Crown lands, wardship, inheritance tx, purveyance (discounts on food and supplies) and monopolies
Custom duties are….
Tunnage and Poundage and new impositions
Occasional sources of finance include….
Forced loans, loans on credit, sale of assets
Direct taxes are…..
tax on movable goods, poll tax, subsidies (tax on income) and ship money
3 subsidies granted but £44000 given away in Patronage.
Also the Bates Case - who refused to pat duty on currants. The courts found in favour of James. Very significant as it meant the King could put levies on LOTS of things without needing to call Parliament.
1608 - New Treasurer
Robert Cecil (1st Earl of Salisbury). Tried to persuade Charles to stop giving away Crown lands.
1608 Book of Bounty
Survey of Crown lands - lands and rents revalued BUT James kept giving it away
1608 - Book of Rates
All impositions now moved in line with inflation - adding 1400 more = £70,000 earned
1610 - City of London loan
To James of £100,000
1610 - The Great Contract
James asked for £600,000 and an annual subsidy of £200,000 and he would give up wardship and some others. Parl said no unless the Bates case was overturned.
1611 - Baronet title created
A new title created being sold for £1095 each. It raised £91000 but no limit on the number of these so by 1622 they were only worth £220 each.
1614 - The Cockayne project
A monopoly to finish cloth but the Dutch refused it,
1614 - New Treasurer
Earl of Suffolk
1617 - New Treasurer
Cranfield - attacked wastage and reduced household expenditure by 50%
1621 - Subsidies granted
£140,000 but James is £900,000 in debt
1624 - Subsidy Act
£300,000 granted for war only
1624 - Statute of monopolies
Limited the right for the kind to issue monopolies to 100 and only new ones could be granted on new inventions
1625 - Warship revenue up by how much?
1st Parliament (1604-11)
1) Buckinghamshire election (James 1 tries to replace MP with his own candidate)
2) The Shirley Case (1604) - arrested while Parliament in session
3) 1604 - Union with Scotland - plan collapsed
4) The Great Contract (1610) - relationship breaks down over finance
Key problems: James didn’t make his policies clear at the start and didn’t ensure enough Privy Councillors in the House of Commons
The 2nd Parliament (The Addled Parliament) 1614
Financial problems - Refused a benevolence of £65000 for Henry’s funeral and LIz’s marriage)
Factional conflict - Howard family - gifts from James, fearing an investigation by Parliament they undermined Parliament provoking conflict.
Manipulation of MPs - Crown attempted to make deals in order to get Parliamentary support (via patronage) was leaked
The 3rd Parliament (1621)
Monopolies - MPs focused on the abuse of monopolies and leading to the impeachment of Bacon.
FP - fell out over the right to discuss FP. Let to the Protestation.
The 4th Parliament (1624)
1) FP - failed trip to Madrid, call for war but small subsidy granted but limited to war spending.
2) Monopolies - Parl wanted to limit and severely limited by 1624 to only new interventions. FIRST strategic limitation on royal prerogative
3) Impeachment of Cranfield.