The Thoracic Wall, Lungs and Middle Mediastinum Flashcards Preview

Anatomy Final > The Thoracic Wall, Lungs and Middle Mediastinum > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Thoracic Wall, Lungs and Middle Mediastinum Deck (47):
1

What are the 3 main parts of the Sternum?

Manubrium = head of sternum, has clavicular notch for sternoclavicular joint.

Body = joins manubrium at sternal angle (Of Louis)

Xiphoid process = lowest point of sternum

2

What are the 4 main parts of the ribs?

Head = articulates with 2 vertebral bodies & 1 disc

Tubercle = Articulates with 1 transverse process

Body = Region of greatest curve = angle

Costal Groove = formed by intercostal V. A. & N.

3

What are the 4 main parts of the ribs?

Head = articulates with 2 vertebral bodies & 1 disc

Tubercle = Articulates with 1 transverse process

Body = Region of greatest curve = angle

Costal Groove = formed by intercostal V., A. & N.

4

Internal Thoracic A & V run from _____ to ____.

2nd to 4th intercostal space

5

Lymphatics of the Pectoral region drain to where?

To parasternal nodes & axillary nodes

6

Lat. & Ant. Nerve of 4th to 6th intercostal nerves carry __________ innervation.

Cutaneous

7

What muscles make up the Pectoral Region?

Pectoralis major and Minor

8

__________ is divided into clavicular and sternocostal heads.

Pectoralis major

9

_______ is enveloped in clavipectoral Fascia.

Pectoralis minor

10

What are the structures of the Ant. Thoracic Wall?

- Breasts
- Ribs & sternum
- Pectoral, intercostal & subcostal.

11

What are the structures of the Ant. Thoracic Wall?

- Breasts
- Ribs & sternum
- Pectoral, intercostal & subcostal.
- Intercostal vessels & nerves.
- Internal Thoracic Vessels

12

How many ribs are there?

12 per side

13

What are the 3 intercostal muscles?

External
Internal
Innermost

14

Where is the Collateral Nerve, artery and vein located?

Superior edge of ribs (below the intercostal A,V & N because its on inferior edge of the rub above.)

15

What is the Pleura?

Serous secreting membranes that reduce friction.

16

What are the 2 main Pleura membranes?

Parietal Pleura
- Covers Thoracic walls
- Very Sensitive to Pain

Visceral Pleura
- Covers lungs
- NOT Sensitive (no sensory supply)

17

T or F, both Pleura membranes remain separate at the root of the lung.

False

18

T or F, both Pleura membranes remain separate at the root of the lung.

False they are continuous

19

What are pleural cavities?

are potential cavities.
- can become actual.
- pathological fluid = effusion; may fill space.
- may compress lungs.
- pleural effusions visible on chest films.
- can obscure lung in film.

20

What are pleural cavities?

are potential cavities.

- can become actual.
- pathological fluid = effusion; may fill space.
- may compress lungs.
- pleural effusions visible on chest films.
- can obscure lung in film.

21

_____ is an accumulation of air in pleural cavity.

Pneumothorax
- Collapses lung due to its own elasticity.

22

______ is accumulation of blood in pleural cavity.

Hemothorax
- May cause adhesions & infection if not removed.

23

What is Pleurisy?

Inflammation of the pleura.
- leads to formation of pleural adhesions
- between paritetal and visceral
- Can produce exquisite pain relative to partial pleura.

24

What is Pleurisy?

Inflammation of the pleura.
- leads to formation of pleural adhesions
- between parietal and visceral
- Can produce exquisite pain relative to partial pleura.

25

what is a plural tap?

Aspiration of fluids
- Taken at IC space 6 or 7 at Midaxillary line.
*If needle is inserted at 8 or 9 may pierce diaphragm, liver or spleen.

26

Divisions of right lung?

Upper
Middle
Lower

27

Divisons of Left lung?

Upper & Lower

28

Where is the oblique fissure?

On both lungs

29

Where is the Horizontal fissure?

On right lung only because it has 3 lobes

30

_____ connects the lung to mediastinum.

Root of the lungs
*covered in sleeve of pleura
* consists of bronchi & pulmonary vessels

31

Inferiorly, the sleeve of pleura that covers the root of the lung becomes ________.

Pulmonary Ligament
*has only a few lymph vessels in it at this point

32

Trachea splits into _______, which splits into _________, which splits into ______.

into 2 primary main bronchi -----> splits into 2 or 3 secondary bronchi -----> splits into 8 or 10 tertiary (segmental) bronchi

33

In General what is the neurovasculature of the root of the lungs?

Sympathetic trunks
- Paravertebral
- dilates Bronchioles

Vagus Nerve
- Pass posteriorly to roots of lungs
- Closely applied to trachea, esophagus & aorta.
- Contribute to ant. & post. pulmonary plexuses.
- Constrict the bronchioles

34

What is the Neurovascualture of the RIGHT Root of lung?

- Vagus nn. (pass post. to root of lungs)
- Phrenic nn (Pass ant. to roots of lungs)
- Pericardiacophrenic vessels (Run with phrenic nn.)

35

What is the Neurovascualture of the LEFT root of lung?

- Vagus nn.

- Phrenic nn.

- Pericardacophrenic vessels.

36

____ supplies nutrients to bronchi & lungs.

Bronchial aa.

37

Lymph is drained from the lungs via ________.

Tracheobronchial nodes & R/L bronchomediastinal trunks.

38

________ is a broad central partition separating 2 pleural Cavities.

Mediastinum

39

What are the 4 subdivisions of the mediastinum?

Superior
Inferior
Anterior
Middle
Posterior

40

The Mediastinum extends from ____ to _____ & from ______ to _______.

Thoracic inlet to diaphragm

Sternum to 12th Thoracic Vertebra

41

What structures are found in the region of the Middle Mediastinum?

- Pericardium & Heart
- Phrenic nn. applied to pericardium
- Pericardiacophrenic vessels
- Roots of great vessels to & from heart.

42

______ is a tough fibrous sac lined with serous membrane.

Pericardium

43

What are the 2 portions of the Pericardium?

Fibrous portion - attached to the diaphragm inferiorly

Serous portion - divided into parietal and visceral layers

44

_____ encloses the heart & is Pierced by roots of 8 vessels.

Pericardium
- SCV
- IVC
- Aorta
- Pulm. trunk
- 4 pulm vv.

45

What is the Pericardial Cavity?

Inside pericardial sac
- Potential space between layers serous & Parietal layers.
*only carries small amount of serous fluid.

46

What is pericardial Effusion?

Accumulation of excess fluid in pericardial cavity .
-results in compression of heart.
- Common in conjunction with congestive heart failure.

47

What is Hemoperricardium?

Accumulation of blood in pericardial cavity
-Associated with penetrating heart wounds or perforated heart muscle following MI.
*Arterial bleeding into cavity leads to Cardiac tamponade = compression of heart and roots of great vessels.