The Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands Flashcards Preview

Endocrine - Anatomy (Year 2) > The Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands Deck (23)
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1

What vertebral levels does the thyroid gland sit between?

C5 to T1

2

What cartilaginous structures does the thyroid sit between?

Thyroid cartilage

6th tracheal ring

3

Identify and name the strap muscles that sit over the thyroid gland?

- Omohyoid

- Sternohyoid

- Sternothyroid

4

What two nerves supply the strap muscles?

Recurrent laryngeal nerve 

- Supplies everything but cricothyroid

- Runs between trachea and oesophagus

 

Superior laryngeal nerve

- Supplies cricothyroid

- Runs alongside sup. thyroid artery

5

What is the blood supply to the thyroid gland?

Sup. thyroid artery

Inf. thyroid artery

6

From which artery does the sup thyroid artery arise?

ECA

7

From which artery does the inf thyroid artery arise?

Subclavian

8

What is the drainage of the thyroid artery?

Sup

Middle

Inf 

Thyroid veins

9

What do the superior and middle thyroid veins drain into?

IJV

10

What does the inferior thyroid vein drain into?

Left brachiocephalic

11

How are thyroid hormones stored in the gland?

In cavities surrounded by secretory cells 

12

What is the cavity combined with the secretory cell collectively known as?

Follicle

13

How arethe thyroid hormones stored within the follicle?

Bound to glycoproteins and is known as colloid

14

Identify 

A) Colloid

B) Follicular cells

 

15

What type of cells line the follicle?

Cuboidal epithelial cells

16

What are the clear cells on histology of the thyroid and what do they produce?

C cells

Secrete calcitonin

17

What hormones are secreted by the thyroid gland?

Thyroxine

- Triiodinothyronine (T3)

- Tetraiodinothyronine (T4)

 

Calcitonin

18

Where are the superior parathyroid glands?

- Lateral to the thyroid lobes

- Cricoid cartilage level

19

How many thyroid glands does the average person have?

4

20

What is the arterial supply and venous drainage of the parathyroids?

Via the inferior thyroid artery

- Thyroid veins to IJV

21

How are the parathyroid glands seperated from the thyroid?

By a thin fibrous capsule

22

What are the two types of cells in the parathyroid glands?

Chief cells

Oxyphil cells

23

What is parathyroid hormone secreted in response to and what is it's action?

Low serum calcium

- Stimulates osteoclasts to release Ca2+ and phosphate from bone

- Inhibits osteoblasts

- Increases renal calcium reabsorption

- Increases renal phosphate secretion

- Stimulates the kidney to release calcitriol