Station 1: The Pituitary Gland and the Hypothalamus Flashcards Preview

Endocrine - Anatomy (Year 2) > Station 1: The Pituitary Gland and the Hypothalamus > Flashcards

Flashcards in Station 1: The Pituitary Gland and the Hypothalamus Deck (25)
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1

What is this and what does it contain?

Sella turcica

- Pituitary gland

2

How does the optic chiasm relate to the pituitary gland?

Sits on top of it

3

Which fibres, nasal or temporal, cross at the optic chiasm?

Nasal

4

If there is pressure on the optic chiasm, what is the resultant visual field defect?

Bitemporal hemianopia

5

How many lobes does the pituitary gland have?

2

Anterior

Posterior

6

Which is larger of the two lobes?

Anterior pituitary

7

Which of the two lobes is 

A) Glandular

B) Neuroendocrine

A) Anterior pit

B) Posterior pit

8

9

What is the pars intermedia?

The intermediate between the two lobes

10

identify the two lobes

Posterior = white

Anterior = pink

11

What are the 3 types of cells present in the pituitary gland on histology and what colour do they stain?

Acidophilic - Pink

Basophilic - Purple

Chromophobes - don't stain (chromo- colour . phobes - avoid)

12

What is a key thing that sets the pituitary apart from other glands?

There is no distinct organisation of the cells

13

What are the two types of acidophils?

Somatotrophs

Mammotrophs

14

What do somatotrophs secrete?

Growth hormone

15

What do mammotrophs secrete and what is their target organ?

Prolactin

Mammillary glands

16

What are the three types of basophils?

Corticotrophs

Thyrotrophs

Gonadotrophs

17

What is secreted by the corticotrophs?

ACTH

MSH (melanocyte stimulating hormone)

18

What is secreted by thyrotrophs?

TSH

19

What is secreted by gonadotrophs?

FSH

LH

20

What are the main secretory cells in the posterior pituitary?

Axons of magnocellular neurones

21

What hormones are secreted by the posterior pituitary?

Oxytocin

Vasopressin

22

What is the blood supply of the pituitary gland?

The superior and inferior hypophyseal arteries

23

Which artery out of the superior and inferior hypophyseal artery forms the hypothalamic hypophyseal portal system?

Superior hypophyseal artery

24

What does the inferior hypophyseal artery supply?

The posterior pituitary

25

What is the purpose of the hypothalamic hypophyseal portal system?

Allows the hypothalamus to communicate with the anterior pituitary

- Secretes releasing hormones that act on the various cells in the ant pit