Flashcards in The tundra Deck (33):
Where does the tundra lie?
In the hudson bay lowland physiographic region
What are the northern and southern boundaries
Southern= tree line
Trees in the tundra
The tundra lacks a tree canopy, but it does have trees the dominant type are willows (arctic willows are indicator species for the tundra)
What is the average temperature of the tundra?
Cold: -6 degrees C
How does the temperature effect the soil?
Permafrost; few nutrients and little decomposition so no soil build up
What is the land like?
Flat, with low elevation (0-60) above sea level. But it is rising
What is present because of the tyrell sea?
Lots of clay and silt deposits that range from 5-75m thick
What is Ontario's largest park?
Polar bear provincial park
Ponds are habitats in the tundra for what kind of animals?
Northern ducks such as greater scaup, long tailed duck, scoters swans (native swan called tundra swan) geese (canada goose and snow goose)
Why are there lots of geese in the Tundra?
Transformation of forest to farmland and prairies to corn fields, which gives geese lots of resources so when they fly back to the tundra they can lay eggs because they are well fed
What kind of negative effect do geese have on the tundra?
They constantly dig up the surface of the land. Dig up plant tubers=physical disturbance. Defecation adds nitrogen to the ecosystem.
What two types of frogs live in the tundra?
Wood frogs and boreal chorus frogs, they are freeze tolerant
What does the height of the land determine?
Which direction water flows, the arctic water shed (north) and the atlantic water shed (south)
What is one challenge Hudson bay presents?
Salt (from the oceans around the edges). Loons eat salt water fish, so salt gland remove the salt
What season are Aquatic birds present in the tundra?
What marine mammals are present?
Ringed and bearded seals (indicator species), walruses, beluga whales (indicator species). Seals and walruses are food for polar bears
What does the tundra have the southern most population for?
Raised beach ridges are important habitats for?
many plants and animals including polar bears. The ridges offer nesting sites for arctic terns, jaegers that live along the coast.
What is the name for a salt tolerant plant?
Halophytic. salt tolerant palnts have thick fleshy leaves which can be protective against harsh abrasive particles and can retain water, one indiator plant is seaside lugwort, the lawn is goosegrass
Stranded beach sites are habitats for what animals?
are important wetland colonizers, they help keep the ground frozen and create their own habitat: peatland. When growth is greater than decompisition the moss layer gets thicker creating its own form of soil.
they head north into the tundra in the summer and feed on lichens and then into the fall they head back south again (woodland caribou)
What is bergman's rule?
Surface area to volume is equal ratio
What birds would you not find in the tundra?
Woodpeckers or any birds that nest in trees
What birds would you find?
ground nesting sparrow like american pippits, lapland longspurs (long toenail for scratching seeds out of the ground), horned lark.
What type of bird stays year round?
What adaptations do plants have for this cold environment?
Cold hardiness, small size (dwarf birch, arctic willow and labrador tea exhibit dwarfism), Low creeping, sprawling growth (crowberry), Clump growth, retain leaves year round, dark colours absorb "warmer" wavelengths of light, hairy undersides to prevent desiccation, hair absorbs heat, grow in a sheltered site
Insect gleaning birds that don't nest on the ground
Yellow warblers, some songbirds, hoary redpolls, American tree sparrows
What features do northern small mammals like lemmings have?
Plump bodies (bergmans rule) and short extremities (allens rule)
Whats special about meadow jumping mouse?
Lives in both northern and southern regions, it can do this because it is a true hibernator (as well as groundhogs, they live along the edge of HB winisk is cree for gorundhog)
Whats special about meadow voles?
They undergo the greatest population cycles of any mammal in the world. the population cycles greatly affect their predators.
What do arctic fox and birds of prey eat?
Small mammals. Birds of prey include short eared owl, northern harriers.