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Flashcards in The Use of Data Deck (24)
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1

What percentage of people with an illness at any given time go to the doctors? And how many of them are referred?

20% go to doctors

3% of them get referred

2

What is disease?

Bio-medical perspective of symptoms and signs ultimately leading to a diagnosis

3

What is illness?

The patient's perspective of their disease and the way it affects them

4

What factors affect uptake of case

Sources of information - peers, family, internet, TV
Medical factors - new symptoms, increasing severity, duration
Non-medical factors - peer pressure, beliefs, expectations, cultural

5

List some sources of epidemiological data

Mortality data
Hospital activity stats
Reproductive health stats
Cancer stats
Accident stats
Drug misuse databases
Expenditure reports from the NHS

6

What are SIGN guidelines?

There to:

Help healthcare professions and patients understand medical evidence and use it to make informed decisions

Reduce unwarranted variations in practice

Improve healthcare

7

What are descriptive studies?

Attempt to describe the amount and distribution of a disease in a given population.

Does not provide definitive solutions about causation

8

What are the benefits and drawbacks of descriptive studies?

Benefits - quick and cheap

Drawbacks - Do not provide definitive solutions about causation of a disease (can however give clues about possible aetiologies and risk factors)

9

What are the three types of analytic studies?

Cross-sectional, case control and cohort studies

10

What are cross-sectional studies?

Observations made from a single point in time and show disease frequency/survey or prevalence

11

What are case controlled studies?

Two groups of people are compared; a group that have the disease (cases) and a group who don't (controls)

12

What are cohort studies?

Baseline data on exposure is collected from a group that does not have the disease under study and then this data is compared to a group of people who do have the disease to allow analysis

13

What are trials?

Experiments used to test the ideas about aetiology or to evaluate interventions

14

What type of trial is the definitive method for assessing any new treatment in medicine?

Randomised controlled trial

15

What factors are there to consider in the interpretation of data from trials?

- Standardisation (statistical technique to remove differences in age or other confounding factors e.g. standardised mortality ratio)
- Quality of data
- Case definition (make sure the terminology refers to the same thing)
- Ascertainment (is the data complete)

16

What are the four types of bias?

Selection, information, follow-up or systematic

17

What is selection bias?

Sample is not truly representative of population

18

What information bias?

Errors in measurement of data

19

What is follow up bias?

Arises where one group happens to be more diligent in sending back data and this effects the conclusions of the test

20

What is systematic bias?

A trend where measuring the results consistently falls on one side of the true measurement due to some implicit oversight

21

What are confounding factors?

A cofounding variable influences both the dependent and the independent variable causing a spurious association

22

What are the criteria for causality?

Strength of association
Consistency
Specificity
Temporality
Biological affect (dose-response relationship)
Coherence
Analogy
Experimentation

23

What is relative risk?

The measure of the strength of an association between a suspected risk factor and the disease under study

24

How do you calculate relative risk?

Relative risk = Incidence of disease in exposed group / Incidence of disease in unexposed group