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WSET D1 - Wine Production 2019 > The Vine and Growing Environment > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Vine and Growing Environment Deck (50)
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American Vine Names

Vitis Lambrusca
Vitis Riparia
Vitis Berlandieri
Vitis Rupestris


Prompt Buds

Form and break in the same season


Compound buds

Produce main shoots the next growing season (Primary + Secondary/Tertiary as backup)


Grapes with red pulp are called

Teinturier (e.g. Alicante Bouschet)


What compounds make up the seeds of a grape

The seeds are yellow -> dark brown as the grape matures. Made up of:
- Oils
- Tannins
- Embryo


Where are carbohydrates (starch) stored in the vine

- One year old wood,
- Permanent wood
- Roots.


What function do roots serve

- Anchor the vine
- Uptake water and nutrients (from tips)
- Store carbohydrates
- Product hormones


What determines the distribution of vine roots

- Soil properties
- Irrigation
- Cultivation
- Rootstock


What is the difference between a cross and a hybrid

Cross - parents the same species (Pinotage = Pinot Noir x Cinsault)
Hybrid - parents different species (Vidal Blanc = Ugni Blanc x Siebel non vinifera)


What grapes were crossed to make Muller Thurgau

Reisling (fruit quality) x Madeline Royale (yield).


Describe the wild grape growth cycle

Grow in woodlands and forests, climb up trees looking for sunlight, once they reach the canopy top, they flower and produce fruit. Rely on birds to distribute seeds.


What are the basic needs of a grape vine

- Water
- Sunlight
- Warmth - photosynthesis
- Nutrients (limited)
- Carbon Dioxide (not usually a limiting factor)


What factors influence budburst

* Mild winter days - encourage early budburst
* Soil - higher soil temp = early (soil composition also important)
* Grape Variety - early/late budding. early = burst at slightly lower temp (just below 10C).
* Human Factors - viticulture can advance/delay


How is budburst delayed and why

- Winter pruning during dormancy.
- Frost is a threat.


What nutrients are needed at 'Shoot and Leaf Growth' stage of the cycle

- Nitrogen
- Potassium
- Phosphorus



Stalk that joins a leaf to a stem. Buds develop at the base.


Stages of pollination

- Pollination - Stamen sheds pollen grains. Land on moistened stigma.
- Germination - Each grain produces a pollen tube.
- Fertilisation - Pollen tubes penetrate stigma then ovule. Delivers sperm which fertilises the egg. Grape berry forms.
- Seed formation - Seeds form in fertilised ovules (<=4 per grape)
- Ovary enlarges - Forms skin + pulp of grape.



Fruit set fails in high proportion of flowers (<30% is normal)
Caused by:
- Imbalance in carbohydrate levels
- Low photosynthesis,
- Cold, Cloudy conditions (Bordeaux)
- Shoot growth too strong diverting carbs from inflorescence (vine balance)



Seedless grapes.
Can ripen normally but smaller = reduced yield.
Some stay green + small (wine quality).


Difference between Xylem and Phloem

- Xylem transports water and carbohydrates from roots. Made up of dead (lignified tissue)
- Phloem transports sugar (produced by photosynthesis) and water from the leaves to other parts of the vine.

* Initially Xylem is used, after veraison and during ripening the Phloem is responsible for over 80% of transfer and the function of the Xylem becomes negligible.


What happens at veraison

* Lag phase - grape growth slows for a few days.
* Grape Walls - become stretchy + supple
* Green Chlorophyll - broken down
* Colour - Formation of anthocyanins. Black varieties begin to turn red.


Explain extra ripening

- Grapes shrivel and sugars concentrate (Phloem sugar transport stops but transpiration continues)
- Ripe aromas develop (jammy)
- Weather and disease pressure can impede
- Undesirable grape shrivelling happens in hot sunny climates (Syrah)


Relationship between latitude, altitude and solar radiation.

Latitude - Higher latitudes receive less solar radiation (more atmosphere to travel through, lower angle so spread over larger area).
Altitude - Solar radiation less intense (less atmosphere), more UV radiation (sunburn).


Benefits of low altitude

Water vapour in the atmosphere absorbs some solar radiation
Valley floors retain some heat at night.


Vine row orientation

- North to south in order to maximize sunlight exposure on both the east and west sides of the canopy.
- Shield the west side of vines from afternoon sun in hot climates.


Slope directions and reasoning.

South East - maximum sun exposure during the day (Burgundy, Alsace)
South - hot climates (Stellenbosch)
East - Morning sunshine (fog, cool climates, heats after ovenight loss)
West - Afternoon Sun - Hot, need cool afternoon see breezes (California, Western Australia)


Difference between El Nino and La Nina

El Nino - Eastern Pacific Warmer. High rain fall, warmer and drier/drought.
La Nina - E. Pac Cooler, cooler and wetter (Pac. NW, Australia) and warmer and drier (Cali, South America)


Weather conditions for noble rot to form.

Fog in the morning with warm, sunny afternoons. (otherwise it's just grey rot).


Rain shadow

Caused when warmer drier air is forced upwards by mountains. Air cools and condenses. One side has greater rain, the other less (Rain Shadow).



When drainage is too poor (clay soil) waterlogging can kill the vine by reducing oxygen available to roots.