Theme 2 - Part A Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Theme 2 - Part A Deck (15):

What 5 kingdoms were organisms traditionally grouped into? What features were used in this classification?

Monera, Protista, Fungi, Animalia, Plantae

based on:
1. energy intake/nutrition
2. methods of reproduction
3. morphology


Differentiate between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

Eukaryotes have membrane-bound organelles; prokaryotes do not.
On average, eukaryotes are larges than prokaryotes.


Why are all prokaryotes small?

The membrane is the total area in which energy production and nutrient/waste exchange can occur in the cell. Since prokaryotes do not have membrane-bound organelles, they cannot sustain a large volume.
Eukaryotes, on the other hand, have a large SA:Volume ratio due to presence of membrane-bound organelles, and can be larger.


What would an organism that uses glucose as its carbon source and light as its energy source be called?



What would an organism that uses sulphur for energy and CO2 as a carbon source be called?



How does phospholipid composition differ between the cell membranes of archaea and eukaryotes&bacteria?

Archaea have ether linkages and isoprene chains
Eukaryotes and bacteria have ester linkages and fatty acid chains


How does saturation influence the fluidity of a cell membrane?

Unsaturation results in "kinks" in the phospholipid tails.
The more saturated the phospholipids, the tighter they can pack together and the less fluid the membrane will be.


Can charged particles diffuse across the plasma membrane?



Can small polar molecules diffuse across to plasma membrane?

somewhat, but slowly


Can small non-polar molecules diffuse across the plasma membrane?



What is the function of sterols in the plasma membrane?

aid in fluidity


Differentiate between the two types of transport proteins involved in facilitated diffusion.

1. Carriers: passage of larger molecules
2. Channels: passage of small particles, particularly ions (esp. voltage-gated ion channels)


How are facilitated diffusion and active transport similar? Different?

1. They both require protein transporters, both display specificity, and both can become saturated.

2. Facilitated diffusion does not require energy expenditure (ATP), while active transport does. Facilitated diffusion occurs across the concentration gradient; active transport occurs against the concentration gradient.


What type of transport involves using a previously built of concentration gradient (using ATP) to drive the transport of a different molecule?

secondary active transport


Differentiate between symport and antiport.

In symport, the transported solute moves in the same direction as the gradient of the driving ion, while in antiport, it moves in the opposite direction.