theme 5: fall of the USSR 1985-91 Flashcards Preview

Edexcel History A Level Russia > theme 5: fall of the USSR 1985-91 > Flashcards

Flashcards in theme 5: fall of the USSR 1985-91 Deck (33):
1

when did Gorbachev become general secretary

1985

2

Twenty-Seventh party congress

February 1986
Gorbachev attacks Brezhnev era as years of stagnation

3

when was the Chernobyl nuclear incident

April 1986

4

twelfth five year plan launched

1986

5

when were the laws on state enterprises enacted

1987

6

Plenum of the Central Committee

October 1987
Yeltsin attacks Gorbachev's reforms

7

when was Yeltsin dismissed as first secretary in Moscow

November 1987

8

when was the legislation of co-operatives

January 1988

9

When was Yeltsin removed from the Politburo

February 1988

10

when was the nineteenth party congress?

June 1988
Principle of multi-candidate elections agreed

11

when were popular fronts formed in the Baltic republics

October 1988

12

When did Armenia announce its control over Nagorno-Karabakh

November 1988

13

when was the election to Congress of People's deputies

March 1989

14

When were there demonstrations in Tbilsi, Georgia

April 1989

15

when was Gorbachev elected Chairman of the Supreme Soviet

May 1989

16

when was the 500 days Programme put in place?

October 1989
Called for rapid transition to a market economy

17

when was the fall of the Berlin Wall?

November 1989

18

When was article 6 repealed

March 1990
opened the way for new political parties to be established

19

When did Lithuania declare independence from the USSR

March 1990

20

When did Yeltsin reign from the communist party?

July 1990

21

when did Georgia declare independence

April 1991

22

when did Yeltsin become president of Russia

June 1991

23

when was the coup by the gang of 8

August 1991

24

when did the Soviet Union recognize the Baltic states as independent

August 1991

25

when did Yeltsin reject Gorbachev's new Union Treaty

November 1991

26

when was the USSR dissolved

December 1991

27

The Novosibirsk Report of 1983
aka "for internal use only"

by economic sociologist Tatyana Zaslavskaya
Drew attention to growing crisis in agrivulture caused by state inefficiency and inflexibility
Most Politburo members ignored it, except Gorbachev who was aware that reform was needed

28

Gorbachev removes opposition

1985: removes Grigory Romanov (leading rival), replaces with Ligachev and Ryzhkov
1986: Yeltsin and Yakelov promoted to central comittee

29

alcohol spending in 1980s (stat)

alcohol accounted for 15% of a household's spending

30

Gorbachev quote on excessive alcohol use

April 1985 "we can't build communism on vodka"
(many turned up to work drunk)

31

methods & goals of the 12th five year plan (1986-90)

methods: increased investment, controlled by central planning
goals: accelerate growth of economy, especially focusing on science and research (mainly engineering)

32

weaknesses of the 12th five year plan

- investment geared towards construction projects which often lead to over spending
- Soviet industry used out of date tools and machinery --> unproductive
- soviet industry was slow to use new technology and used most foreign exchange to import food
- agricultural sector needed vast sums of investment
- focus remained on quantity over quality

33

why didn't Gorbachev's policy of acceleration actually help the economy?

Didn't address the fundamental problems that caused issues
Opposition to change from within the state and economic planning apparatus meant real change was hard to make