theme 4: social developments 1917-85 Flashcards Preview

Edexcel History A Level Russia > theme 4: social developments 1917-85 > Flashcards

Flashcards in theme 4: social developments 1917-85 Deck (85):

when were labour exchanges (job centres) set up



Soviet government announces full employment in ...



when was minimum wage introduced + pension provision expanded



expansion of the housing programme happened in



when did the government reduce the working week



working hours in 1956 vs 1958

1956: 48 hours per week
1958: 41 hours per week


when were regular wages introduced for collective farmers



when was the work passport system extended to the rural population



problems caused by Stalin's push to industrialise (employment)

created full employment, no incentives for workers since they have a garunteed job
technology was old so everything had to be done by hand, there was a labour shortage


effects of civil war on workers

collapse of industrial production meant there was a drift of workers out of the countryside and into factory work where income was more reliable -> food shortages
people way fighting in civil war lead to shortage of workers -> many factories closed down


how did the government deal with shortage of workers during the civil war

issued a decree that forced people without employment to take any work offered to them
1918 -> war communism -> labour conscription
labour exchanges set up to supervise the hiring of workers


issue with the labour exchanges

many workers did not register for fear of being forced into a job they didn't like


problems of the end of the civil war on the workforce

millions of discharged soldiers returned to civilian work
most of the women left their jobs for the returning men, leaving many homeless
food shortages in the countryside lead to a wave of workers and peasants coming into the cities
unemployment in 1926 was over a million


why did many women give up their jobs after there civil war

returning men were often better trained
seen as more important for men to provide for their family
discrimination in the workforce, 70% of those who were fired were female


perks of the end of the civil war on the workforce

NEP meant real wages started to rise for skilled workers


what are real wages

income expressed in terms of purchasing power as opposed to actual money received.
"what happens to real wages depends on changes in both money wages and prices"


features of the job market under the NEP

use of arteli in recruitment
growth in wage differentials (highest paid vs lowest paid)
"shock brigades" to work on construction projects


what were arteli

groups of workers, usually from the same trade, who offered their services as a group and were paid as a group. lead by older members who organised jobs and distributed pay based on arbitrary factors such as age and sometimes even beard length.
Government considered them a backward feature of the economy


number of hired workers in 1928 vs 1937

1928: 11.6 million
1937: 27 million


effects of the 5 year plans on the workforce

excessive targets meant factories had to employ extra workers
new factories and building works always opening -> lots of employment opportunities
because of high demand, by 1932 there were labour shortages


effects of full employment on the workers

swamping of old industrial workers by new peasant workers lead to divisions in the workplace
restrictions places on trade unions, no longer allowed to negotiate with managers --> poor working conditions
October 1930, unemployment benefit was cancelled -> trade unions left to provide social insurance such as compensation for injuries
low productivity, 1927 the average soviet worker produced 1/2 of what an average British worker produced


effects of labour shortages

workers who were unhappy with their jobs could easily find a new one, no one stayed in jobs long enough to properly learn the trade


how did the government combat labour shortages

1931: wage difference between skilled and unskilled workers increased
1932: internal passport introduced that was needed to change jobs, started distributing rations at the workplace so those in between jobs didn't get them
1934: piecework introduced (paid by the amount you produce), however high wages were not a great incentive as there was little to buy in shops
1937: 30% of workers still charged jobs 4 times a year


bolshevik policy on housing in 1917

took big houses from rich people to partition and rent to the families of workers. meant to be assigned by need, rather they were mostly given to those higher up in the party.
not enough housing to meet the needs of all


effects of the 5 year plans on housing

enormous growth of towns put strain on housing. Housing given low priority whilst massive influx of workers meant demand was high


population of Moscow 1929 vs 1936

1929: 2.2 million
1936: 4.1 million


population of Magnitogorsk 1929 vs 1932

1929: 25
1932: 250,000


effects of housing not matching population growth during 5 year plans

workers slept in tents, makeshift huts, or in the factories they worked in


living conditions in 1936

only 6% of people rented units with more than 1 room
24% of workers only rented part of 1 room
5% lived in a kitchen or corridor
25% lived in dormitories


cost of renting

living costs were low, most families spent less than 8% of income on housing. however this did not make up for the fact that most lived without hot water or electricity


effects of WW2 on housing

Stalingrad lost 90% of housing
Leningrad lost 1/3 of housing during the siege of the city (1941-44)


who provided most social benefits for workers

trade unions
since they no longer had any real economic or political power they improved the lives of workers by organising sports facilities, meetings, and film shows


social benefits provided for workers by trade unions

given 2 weeks paid holiday, often taken on cheap subsidised vacations to state resorts
sick pay given


number of doctors 1929 vs 1940 + reason for change

1928: 70,000
1940: 155,000
many doctors had fled Russia soon after the revolution in 1917, weakening the healthcare that the government could provide so they increased the number of training


what was soviet healthcare like

lots of healthcare available, not always high quality
good sanitation, all sanitary inspectors were given the same status as doctors
patients had no choice in healthcare and all medications had to be paid for (at a low subsidised rate)


social services in cities vs rural areas by 1953

cities: soviet worker was likely to be employed, housed, and in receipt of basic social services
rural: services were primitive, if that area even had any


when did krushchev claim that the soviet society would begin to enjoy the benefits of socialism



employment under developed socialism

1977 constitution guaranteed full employment. only temporary unemployment for seasonal workers and fresh graduates
employment does not equal job satisfaction, several pointless jobs invented to allow full employment
real wages rose 50% 1967-77, workers had more spending power


job security under developed socialism

1977 constitution made it difficult to fire someone for anything (laziness, incompetence, or alcoholism)
managers often ignored work discipline, many workers were absent or moonlighting
minimum wage introduced in 1956 to try stop moonlighting and keep everyone above the poverty line


improved material benefits under developed socialism

9th five year plan 1971-75 set a higher growth rate for consumer goods than heavy industry
targets were not met but they're was still improvement


how did the nomenklatura system bring stability under developed socialism

in order to be promoted, you had to be recommended by a sponsor within the party. Workers had to show loyalty to the party.
party membership grew because of this


communist party membership 1953 vs 1980

1953: 6.9 million
1980: 17 million


how did education under developed socialism

compulsory education age 7-15 meant literacy levels reached over 99% by the 1980s
compulsory school meant it was easy to get propaganda to the children


what were the soviet youth groups

octoberists (5-9)
pioneers (10-14)
Komsomol (15-28)
you had to join a youth group if you wanted to be in favour with the party, also allowed children to escape crowded social living


state welfare spending 1950 vs 1980

increased fivefold
pensions, maternity benefits, and housing all received more attention which helped relieve some poverty


annual amount of housing space provided by the state 1951 vs 1961

1951: 178 million square meters
1961: 394 million square meters


living conditions in the countryside under developed socialism

increased investment in agriculture started by krishchev was continued by Brezhnev
used to fund schools, housing, and healthcare in rural areas
1966, farmers got wages
by the mid 1970's, wages of rural workers were only 10% less than those of agricultural workers


proof that the soviet government feared social instability

nervous rections to developments in its satellite states
1956: soviet tanks invade Hungary to crush uprising
1968: soviet military used to quell unrest in Czechoslovakia
1980: Poland forced to implement martial law when there are protests over food prices



founded in 1917, this women's department was lead by Alexandra Kollontai
closed in 1930 as the Party claimed women's issues had been solved (shows male dominated view of the party)


when was the 1st soviet constitution (+ effects on women)

Gave men and women equality under the law


when was the family code

gives women greater right within marriage


civil war effects on women

Millions of women conscripted into the workplace
over 70,000 women fought in the red army (few had high rank)
not enough resources for sufficient childcare / creches
disruption caused by war + famine 1921-22 left many women homeless and lead to a ruse in prostitution


what are 'postcard' divorces and when were they made legal

they're quick & cheap divorces designed to help women escape abusive husbands
made legal in 1926
Instead often used by men to leave wives who had fallen pregnant, 70% of all divorces were initiated by men


campaign for the unveiling of women

lead by radical young Communist women, encouraged muslim women to unveil themselves and be empowered.
lead to 'honour' killings -> by the 1930s the government took a softer approach


Stalin's great retreat

traditional values restored e.g. abortion made illegal again (except where the mother's life was in danger)


WW2 effects on women

women conscripted into factories


when was the tax on single people established

this was one of several measures put in place to further traditionalise family values


abortion legalised (after great retreat)



first women to be a full member of the presidium (politburo)

Ekaterina Furtseva


family code places restrictions on divorce



old russian proverb that shows sexist mentality of the time

"The more you beat your wife the better the soup will taste"


why were the bolsheviks insistent on gender equality

marxism says all should be equal no matter if they are male or female


early decrees (bolsheviks) that helped women

abortion legalised
divorce made simple
laws that forced a woman to obey her husband were abolished
women no longer needed their husband's permission to take a job or enter higher education


effects of forced collectivisation on women

many men left the countryside to find work in the cities (some sent money to wives, others abandoned)
agricultural work left to women: low status, low pay
made worse by WW2 since most able bodied men were conscripted -> imbalance of the sexes


effects of the Khrushchev and Brezhnev years on women in the countryside

health and maternity care was extended to the countryside
status of agriculture raised
internal passport system extended to countryside in 1974 allowed women to move into the towns in search of better paid work (however this opportunity was normally taken by young men)


impact of industrialisation on women in towns

pressure for labour in industry (five year plans) gave women little choice but to work
work was no longer a symbol of female liberation but of socialist duty
economic struggles of the 30s forced many women into work
women dominated light industry (especially textiles)


number of female industrial workers 1928 vs 1940

1928: 3 million
1940: 13 million


expansion of education for women

1929: government reserves 20% of higher education places for women (rose from 14% to 20%)
1940: 40% of those studying engineering were women


the socially active woman

this was a magazine that targeted the female social elite (1930s onwards). Those married to industrial managers or party officials did not have to work and were instead encouraged to do 'social work' (eg hanging up curtains in workers dorms or holding cooking classes). The magazine was a subtle way of enforcing social divisions among women


how many soviet women served in the armed forces WW2

most in medical but some as pilots, machine gunners, and tank crews


when did women get the vote



women in the party statistics

1932: women only made up 16% of party membership
1939: female delegates only just exceed 10%


first woman in space

Valentina Tereshkova, 1963
she was massively publicised (space race with America) and became a soviet hero


statistic to show women didn't really have equality in the work place

70% of all dismissals were women


new marriage law

weakened traditional marriage by giving equal status under the law of registered and unregistered marriages


divorce rates after postcard divorces came in

1926: 50% of marriages end in divorce


1926 abortion rates

for every 4 pregnancies, 3 were aborted
due to the poor quality of soviet condoms ('condoms have more rubber in than the tyres '), now-legal abortion became used as contraception


main changes of the great retreat of 1936

divorce made more expensive (4 roubles to 50 roubles)
free marriages lost their legal status
male homosexuality made illegal
abortion outlawed (except where the mothers life was at risk)
pregnant women allowed more maternity leave (16 weeks), given job security, and given lighter work when pregnant (to encourage working women to have kids)
gold wedding rings start to reappear
more money put towards creches
2-year prison sentence for men who did not pay towards the upkeep of their family (often low priority)


childcare expansion 1928 onwards

number of nursery places doubled 1928 to 1930, and continued to grow under the second five year plan


further strengthening of traditional family values after the great retreat

government introduced awards "mother heroines" who had 10 or more children
tax on single people to encourage marriage
divorce made more complicated and couples could be forced to visit a District Court to attempt reconciliation


how did Krushchev's focus on traditional family values effect working women?

1936: 49% workforce women
Khrushchev stresses that women should be the main source of childcare (double burden)


statistics to show which fields were female dominated by 1985

70% of medical doctors were women
75% of university employees were women
65% of art and culture employees were women
*pay in female dominated fields was lower*


what were women targeted to do in the virgin lands scheme

milkmaids, gardeners, and start families
men left to use heavy machinery


statistic to show that women were only targeted for low paying jobs in late 50s/early 60s

August 1958
6400 women recruited
only 450 had well paid professional jobs


statistics to show low status of women in agriculture in 70s/80s

1970: 72% of the Soviet union's lowest-paid farmers were women
1980: only 2% of farm managers were women