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Flashcards in Theories Deck (36):
1

What is theory x?

The idea that workers don't like work and need close supervision

2

What is theory y?

The idea that workers are interested, important and should be involved in decision making

3

What is the Tannenbaum and Schmidt Continuum?

It shows management styles based upon how decisions are made and communicated with staff

4

What is the Blake Mouton Grid?

It identifies a mangers style based on their concern for staff and production, e.g. Country club management or produce or perish style

5

What is the product life cycle?

Shows the sales of a product over its life

6

What are the stages of the product life cycle?

Development, introduction, growth, maturity, decline

7

What is the Boston Matrix?

It plots the position of a business in terms of market share and relative growth

8

What are the 4 categories on the Boston Matrix?

Dog, rising star, problem child, cash cow

9

What did Taylor say about workersand motivation?

He believed workers are only interested in money as a motivator and should be strictly supervised

10

What did Maslow say about motivation?

Workers have a hierarchy of needs and firms must fulfill these needs starting at the bottom

11

What did Maslow's hierachy of needs look like?

Bottom - physiological needs (Food, shelter)
Security needs (contracts)
Social needs (relationships with employees)
Esteem needs (recognition)
Top - Self actualisation (fulfilling potential)

12

What did Herzberg say about motivation?

Hé believed workers have hygiene factors (physiological and security needs). He said that these wouldn't motivate but need to be fulfilled before workers can become motivated

13

What was Hackmann and Oldham's theory about?

Job design

14

What did Hackmann and Oldham say?

They said that a good job design must include 5 things:
Task significance (role useful to the firm)
Skill variety (worker must use several skills)
Task identity (worker has to complete something)
Autonomy (worker has some decision making freedom)
Feedback (worker gets info back on their performance)

15

What did Prahalad and Hamal say about core competences?

That in order to be a core competency it must have 3 qualities:
. Be significant for consumers
. Allow firm to access a variety of markets
. Be hard for rivals to replicate

16

What idea did Kaplan and Norton devise?

The balanced scorecard

17

What is the balanced scorecard?

A process that assess performance in 4 areas:
. Financially
. In terms of customer value, i.e. Customer satisfaction
. Process performance
. Learning and growth performance

18

What is Ellington's Triple Bottom line?

A process that looks at performance in 3 areas:
. Profit
. People (how socially responsible the firm are)
. Planet

19

What is Carroll's CSR pyramid?

It shows how a firm meets its social responsibilities

20

What are the 4 parts of Carroll's CSR pyramid?

Top- philanthropic responsibilities (being a good corporate citizen)
Ethical responsibilities (doing what is right)
Legal responsibilities (obeying the law)
Bottom - economic responsibilities (being profitable)

21

What are Porter's 5 forces related to?

The things which are key in affecting the competitive environment

22

What are Porter's 5 forces?

The bargaining power of suppliers
The bargaining power of the buyers
Competitive rivalry
Threat of new entrants
Threat of new substitute products

23

What is Ansoff's Matrix

A tool that managers can use to compare strategies they could use and the risk involved

24

What are the 4 parts of Ansoff's Matrix?

Market penetration - existing market and products
Market development - new market and and existing products
Product development - new product, exiting market
Diversification - new market new product

25

What is Bowmann's strategic clock?

This shows the different strategic positizoning options available to firms in terms of price and value for the customer

26

What is Greiner's model about?

Growth

27

What are the 6 phases and 5 crises of Greiner's model

Growth through creativity - leadership crisis (leader can't now do everything themselves)
Growth through direction - autonomy crisis (local managers need freedom to take local decisions)
Growth through delegation -control crisis (because local managers now have too much indépendance)
Growth through co-ordination - red tape crisis (too many rules, procedures to follow)
Growth through collaboration - growth crisis (firm has run out of ideas for internal growth)
Growth through alliances

28

What is Bartlett and Ghoshal's theory about?

This helps managers decide on the best international approach for their situation

29

what are the 2 axis on Bartlett and Ghosal's theory?

x - need for local responsiveness
y - need for close integration of all parts of the business

30

what are the quadrants on Bartlee and Ghoshal's theory?

low integration, low responsiveness - international approach
low integration, high responsiveness - multi domestic
high integration, low responsiveness - global approach
high integration, high responsiveness - transnational approach

31

What does Greiner's model of growth suggest?

Growth goes through several stages with a crisis at the end of each stage that must be overcome in order to reach the next stage of growth

32

What are the stages on Greiner's model?

creativity - leadership crisis
direction - autonomy crisis
delegation - control crisis
coordination - red tape crisis
collaboration - growth crisis
external growth

33

What did Kotter and Schleshinger say are the main reasons for staff resistance?

1) parochial self interest
2)misunderstanding about need for change
3)low tolerance to change
4)disagreement over the need for change

34

How did Kotter and Schleshinger say a firm can overcome resistance?

1)better comm. to staff
2)allow those affected to be involved in change
3)Help employees through change
4) Negotiation and bargaining about the change
5)manipulation, e.g. buy people off
6)coercion, e.g. threats

35

What are Handy's 4 types of organisational culture?

1) power
2) role
3) person
4) task

36

What are Hofstede's national cultures?

A method of identifying differences between cultures of different countries
1)Power distance
2)individualism v collectivism
3)uncertainty avoidance
4)Macs. v fem.
5)short termisn v long termism