Flashcards in Unit 6 - HR Deck (48):
Name 6 key possible HR objectives
Employée engagement and involvement
Alignment of values
Number, right skills and location of employees
What is diversity?
It is realising that each individual worker is different
What are the two opposite types of HR approach?
Soft and hard HR
What is a hard HR approach?
Where employees are simply treated as a resource, have little autonomy and are more than likely often on low wages due to the basic nature of the work
What is a soft HR approach?
Employers have regular communication with employees and employees are encouraged to take responsibility. Appraisal systems are generally more focused on employee needs rather than simply how good or bad there performance has been, as with a hard HR approach
What is an appraisal system?
The process where managers examine and evaluate a worker's performance and compare it with preset targets
What is labour productivity?
Measures the output per employee over a specified time period
How do you calculate labour productivity?
Total output per time period/number of employees
What effect does higher labour productivity have on costs?
It decreases unit costs because fixed costs are now spread over more units
Why is being capital intensive good for many firms?
It can reduce unit costs massively as machinery can be far more productive and efficient
What is labour cost per unit?
This is how much it costs in labour to produce 1 unit of output
How do you calculate labour cost per unit?
What happens to labour cost per unit if productivity rises?
What does employee costs as a percentage of turnover measure?
This calculates labour costs as a percentage of turnover
How do you measure employee costs as a percentage of turnover?
Labour costs/turnover. X100
How do you calculate labour turnover?
Number leaving over time period/total number of employees. X100
How do you calculate labour retention?
Number employed for more than 1 year/total number of employees X100
What is human resource planning?
Ensuring staffing in terms of numbers and skills is adequate to achieve objectives
What is job rotation?
Varying the jobs done but of a similar complexity
What is job enrichment?
Giving employees more variety of takes with different complexities
What is empowerment?
Where employees are given some control over their work to make decisions
What is job enlargement?
Giving the employee and increased number of tasks to complete
WHat is the chain of command?
It is the order of hierachy through which information is passed
What Is a span of control?
This is the number of subordinates a manager is directly in control of
What is a flat organisational structure?
Where there is a smaller chain of command but wider spans of control
What Is a tall organisational structure?
Where the spans of control are shorter and the chain of command is longer
Benefits/problems of a tall structure?
Less pressure on managers to control lots of subordinates
Managers can watch employees more closely
Things may take too long Too get down the supply chain
Workers may feel like they have no freedom due to close control
Benefits/problems of a flat structure?
Smaller chain of command so messages can be passed more quickly
More freedom for workers
More pressure on managers to control lots of subordinates
May become overworked
What is centralisation?
When decision making is done at the top of the hierachy
Name some influences of centralisation/decentralisation
The size of the business
The managers's style
The type and skills of the employees
What the business does
What are some of the values of changing job/organisational design?
Potentially cut costs
Messages may be passed more quickly if organisational structure is flattened
Making jobs more interesting
What is delayering?
The process of cutting layers of management from the organisational hierachy
What is the HR flow?
The movement of people through the business, starting with recruitment
What is HR planning?
This is the process that identifies the number of employees and skills needed in future
What is a job description?
This tells the employee what duties and roles their job entails
What is a person specification?
This sets out what kind of person the employee needs to be and what kind of skills they need to have
WHat are some of the circumstances in which dismissal can happen?
Persistent minor conduct
A substantial reason
What is employee engagement?
When an employee is committed to an organisation and what it wants to achieve
What was Herzberg's theory about motivation?
He said physiological and security needs will not motivate, but these 'hygiene factors' must be in place before employees can begin to be motivated
What did Taylor say?
That workers are only motivated by money and should be closely supervised
What did Maslow say about motivation?
That workers have a hierachy of needs that must be worked through
What is a piece rate?
When workers are paid by each item they produce
What is commission?
An employee is rewarded according to sales achieved
What is performance related pay?
Where workers may only be paid when they meet or exceed targets
What is a trade union?
An organisation that represent the interest of employees in order to protect and advance their position in the workplace
What are the roles of a trade union?
Negotiate on pay conditions
Discuss major changes in the workplace such as redundancy
Provide members with legal and financial advice
What is a works council?
A body composed of employees and employers to negotiate about working conditions