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English Language - Child Language > Theories > Flashcards

Flashcards in Theories Deck (24):
1

Nativist theory

Innate ability. Children learn language by extracting rules from what it hears. This can lead to virtuous errors - a ‘mistake’ that has logic, and overextension/ overgeneralisation - the child tried to apply a rule to to a word which is non-standard/ irregular

2

Social Interactionist Theory

Language is innate but parents will use Child Directed Speech to support the child’s learning. Features include: interrogatives and imperatives to encourage the child to converse, repeating their utterances back to them, modelling the standard form (not correcting), lexical expression and recasting if the child doesn’t respond

3

Behaviourist Theory

Children learn by copying adults. Adults ‘reward’ standard forms and ‘punish’ non-standard forms (Operant Conditioning). Explains word learning and aspects of phonology. Doesn’t explain grammar and morphology as parents rarely correct these. Also, children rarely listen to adults corrections

4

Cognitive Theory

Children are unable to produce language structures until they understand the concepts behind them. Explains morphology but doesn’t explain the process the child then goes through to learn these forms (pair with another theory)

5

Aitchinson

Labelling- A child links a sound to an object. They are able to call something their correct name
Packaging - A child begins to understand the range of meaning a word might have
Network Building - A child begins to make connections between words. They understand that words have opposites e.g. ‘big’ and ‘small’ are antonyms

6

Hyponymy

Hierarchal structure that exists between lexical items

7

Hypernym

A more general word that can have more specific words under it

8

Hyponym

A specific word in a wider category

9

Synonym

Express similar meanings

10

Antonym

Express opposite meanings

11

Under extension

Uses a word in a restricted way

12

Emerging literacy

Any reading/ writing like behaviour which mimics components of the activities that are generally considered reading or writing

13

Emergent reading

Children comprehend or attempt to comprehend a message encoded in graphic signs

14

Emergent writing

Children attempt to produce graphic signs representing oral speach

15

Scribbling stage

Think it conveys meaning
Mimics parents writing
Motor skills undeveloped
Attempt to write left to right
Inverted graphemes
Understand list form

16

Approximate stage

Associate graphemes with phonemes
Understand directionality
Able to produce letter forms
Pictures to add meaning

17

Conventional spelling stage

Produce standard forms
More detailed
Fronted adverbial - place
Declaratives
1st person pronouns
Likely done in school
Some phonetic spelling

18

Social development theory (Vygotsky)

Stresses the fundamental role of social interaction in the development of cognition
Input from more experienced people
ZPD is an area of learning that occurs when a child Is assisted by a teacher or person with a higher skill

19

ZPD

Zone of proximal development

20

Constructivist learning theory

Children acquire language as a result of engaging in social experiments

21

Scaffolding

Help children with things they cannot do individually

22

Labelling

Child links a sound to an object. They are able to call something their correct name.

23

Packaging

Child begins to understand the range of meaning a word might have. They recognise that the word bottle can cover different shapes and sizes but have a similar function

24

Network building

Child begins to make connections between words. They understand that words can have opposites e.g. big and small