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Flashcards in Theorists Deck (34)
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Albert Bandura

If an audience (particularly younger) sees aggressive behaviour in the media, they are more likely to imitate it.


Roland Barthes

Semiotics- All elements of a media text are codes that need to be read on a denotative level (what they actually mean) and a connotative level (what it infers/ implies).


Which texts relate to Albert Bandura's Theory, and why?

Assassins Creed 3: Liberation- The PEGI system has rated the game an 18 due to its violent nature and aggressive behaviours portrayed. assassins


Which texts relate to Barthes Theory of Semiotics?

Adverts, Music Videos, Newspapers, Magazines, Websites.
Explores Media Language.


Tzvetan Todorov

Narratives typically follow the structure: Equilibrium, Disruption, Attempt to restore, New Equilibrium.


Which texts relate to Todorov's Theory?

TV, exploring Media Language.


Steve Neale

Genre is recognisable, but does change over time or borrow from other genres. Conventions within texts reflect typical conventions of the genre in order to help market texts to audiences.


Which texts relate to Neale's Theory?

TV, exploring Media Language.


Levi- Strauss

The conflict between Binary Oppositions (eg. good v. bad, men v. women) drive the narrative forward.


Which texts relate to Levi- Strauss' Theory?

Adverts, Music Videos, Newspapers, Magazines, Websites, TV, exploring Media Language.



Postmodernism- The line between created texts and reality have become blurred. Hyperreality- media images seem more real than the reality they represent.


Which texts relate to Baudrillard's Theory?

Websites, TV (Human's Only), exploring Media Language.


David Gauntlett

We use the internet and other media texts to help us create our identity. We "pick and mix" from a variety of representations to form our own identity.


Which texts relate to Gauntlett's Theory?

Adverts, Music Videos, Magazines, Websites, exploring Representation.


bell hooks

Feminism is a political struggle to end patriarchal dominance over women. Factors that can affect this include race and class.


Which texts relate to hooks' Theory?

Adverts, Music Videos, TV, Magazines, exploring Representation.


Liesbet Van Zoonen

Men and women are represented differently in the media. Women are objectified and sexualised as a result of Western Culture.


Which texts relate to Van Zoonen's Theory?

Adverts, Music Videos, TV, Magazines, exploring Representation.


Paul Gilroy

Even though we no longer have colonies, the representation of these groups are still affected by that time.


Which texts relate to Gilroy's Theory?

Adverts, Music Videos, Websites (Attitude only), exploring Representation.


George Gerbner

Cultivation Theory: The more we see representations and messages repeated in the media, the more we believe them to be true.


Which texts relate to Gerbner's Theory?

Adverts, Magazines, Newspapers, Websites exploring Audiences.


Clay Shirky

"End of Audience"- We are now more likely to use the internet and other technologies to respond to texts by creating our own, becoming creators/ producers instead of displaying typical consumer behaviour.


Which texts relate to Shirky's Theory?

Newspapers, Radio, Video Games, Websites, exploring Audiences.


Curran & Seaton

The media is controlled by a small number of large companies primarily driven by the logic of profit and power. If we had more of a variety of media companies then we would have more variety of diverse texts.


Which texts relate to Curran & Seaton's Theory?

Film, Newspapers, Radio, Video Games, Magazines, exploring Industry.


Stuart Hall

Media Language is used to create representations. Stereotyping is used to assert power. Media texts can be interpreted with a preferred reading, Negotiated Reading or an Oppositional Reading.


Which texts relate to Hall's Theory?

Adverts, Newspapers, Radio, Video Games, TV, Magazines, exploring Media Language and Audiences.


Negotiated Reading

The audience accepts the text’s ideological assumptions, but disagrees with aspects of the messages, so negotiates the meaning to fit with their personal views.


Preferred Reading

The audience completely accepts the text’s messages and the ideological assumptions behind the messages that were intended to be recognised.