Flashcards in Theorists: Maslow + Erikson Deck (49):
Abraham Maslow came up with a theory of __ __
Maslow's theory deals with __ __
Maslow emphasized a " __ __ __"
hierarchy of needs
In Maslow's hierarchy of needs, the lower ones require __ __ those of a higher level can be achieved
In Maslow's hierarchy of needs, the __ with hierarchy may __ from __ level to __ level based on life's circumstances
Maslow believed that an individual's motivations are a quest for ___-________
What does self-actualization describe?
psychologically healthy, fully human, highly evolved, fully mature
What is at the base of the pyramid (Maslow's hierarchy of needs)?
Physiological Needs - food, water, sleep, air
What is directly above physiological needs in Maslow's pyramid?
Safety - Home (personal security, financial security)
What is directly above Safety in Maslow's pyramid?
Love and Belonging - activating deeper, more meaningful relationships, social needs, caring
What is directly above Love&Belonging in Maslow's pyramid?
Esteem - you've acquired the skills that lead to honor and recognition; self-confidence
What is directly above Esteem in Maslow's pyramid?
Self-Actualization - you are living for your highest potential!
What theory did Erik Erikson produce?
Theory of Pyschosocial Development?
How many stages are there in Erikson's theory?
8 stages of the life cycle
Erikson believe that individuals struggle with __ __
There are __ __ associated with each of Erikson's stages and must be complete for __ of the crisis and for __ __ to occur
What are the 8 stages of Personality Development?
1. Trust vs. Mistrust
2. Autonomy vs. Shame + Doubt
3. Initiative vs. Guilt
4. Industry vs. Inferiority
5. Identity vs. Role Confusion
6. Intimacy vs. Isolation
7. Generativity vs. Stagnation of self-absorption
8. Ego integrity vs. Despair
Age range for Trust vs. Mistrust stage
birth to 18 months
Age range for Autonomy vs. Shame+Doubt stage
18 months to 3 years
Age range for Initiative vs. Guilt stage
3 to 6 years
Age range for Industry vs. Inferiority stage
6 to 12 years
Age range for Identity vs. Role Confusion stage
12 to 20 years
Age range for Intimacy vs. Isolation stage
20 to 30 years
Age range for Generativity vs. Stagnation of self-absorption stage
30 to 65 years
Age range for Ego Integrity vs. Despair stage
65 years to death
What are the tasks for Trust vs. Mistrust?
to develop a basic trust in the mothering figure and to generalize it to others
What is non-achievement for Trust vs. Mistrust?
emotional dissatisfaction with others, suspiciousness and difficulty with interpersonal relationships
What is the major task in Autonomy vs. Shame&Doubt? What are the other tasks involved?
Major task: to gain self-doubt and independence within the environment
Tasks: delay of gratification, self-confidence in one's ability to perform
How is Autonomy achieved in Autonomy vs. Shame&Doubt?
when parents encourage and provide opportunities for independent activities
What is considered non-achievement in Autonomy vs. Shame&Doubt?
lack of self-confidence, lack of pride in the ability to perform, feeling of being controlled by others; primary caregivers restrict independent behaviors both physically and verbally or set the child up for unrealistic expectations
What is the goal of Initiative vs. Guilt?
to develop a sense of purpose and the ability to initiate and direct one's own activities
What is considered achievement in Initiative vs. Guilt?
ability to exercise restraint and self control of inappropriate social behaviors, control of impulsive behavior; creativity is encouraged, performance is recognized and positively enforced
What is considered non achievement in Initiative vs. Guilt?
feelings of inadequacy, guilt, and sense of defeat
What is the major task for Industry vs Inferiority?
achieve a sense of self-confidence by learning, competing, performing successfully, and receiving recognition from significant others and peers
What is considered achievement in Industry vs Inferiority?
satisfaction and pleasure in the interaction and involvement with others, mastery of reliable work habits, trustworthiness, pride in achievement
what does industry mean?
activity, energy, productiveness
HOW is industry achieved?
When encouragement is given to activities and responsibilities in school and community
Recognition is given for accomplishments
What is considered non-achievement in Industry vs Inferiority?
difficulty in interpreting relationships b/c of feelings of personal inadequacy; inability to cooperate or compromise, problem solve, or complete tasks successfully
What is considered achievement for identity vs. role confusion?
sense of confidence, emotional stability, and view of self as a unique individual
value system, career choice, and relationships with both genders, making decisions that influence their lives
parents relinquish control
What is considered non-achievement identity vs. role confusion?
confusion about one's role in life
lack of personal values
lack of self-confidence is often expressed by delinquency and rebellious behavior
What is the major task for intimacy vs. isolation?
to form lasting relationship or commitment to another person, a case, an institution, or a creative effort
What is considered achievement in intimacy vs. isolation?
capacity for mutual love and respect between 2 people and the ability of an individual to pledge a total commitment to another
What is considered non-achievement in intimacy vs. isolation?
social isolation and aloneness
Individual is unable to form lasting, intimate relationships, often seeking intimacy through numerous superficial sexual contacts
No career established, history of occupational changes
What is the major task of generativity vs. stagnation of self-absorption
achieve life's goals established for oneself while also considering the welfare of future generations
What is considered achievement for generativity vs. stagnation of self-absorption
sense of gratification from person and professional achievement and from meaningful contributions to others
individual is active in the service to others and society
What is considered non-achievement for generativity vs. stagnation of self-absorption?
lack of concern for the welfare of others and the total preoccupations with the self
withdrawn, isolated, and self-indulgent
these tasks are unresolved when earlier tasks are not fulfilled
What is the goal for ego integrity vs. despair?
review one's life and derive meaning from both positive and negative events, while achieving a positive sense of self
What is considered achievement of ego integrity vs. despair?
self-worth and self-acceptance
accepting that some goals were achieved and some were not
dignity from life experiences and does not fear death, rather viewing it as another stage of development