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Flashcards in Third Midterm Deck (49):
1

Calcipotriene

also called donovex (synthetic vitamin D3 derivative).

2

Fampridine

Neuronal potassium channel blocker
(Closes the axons so that nerve impulses can happen again).

3

IL2

immuno-Stimulant. enhances anti-tumor action of cytotoxic t cells and NK cells

4

G-CSF, GM-CSF

Immunostimulant. G-CSF is used to treat neutropenia. GM CSF is for bone marrow transplants.

5

interferon (alpha, beta, gamma)

Immunostimulant. alpha- anti cancer. stimulation of NK cells.
beta- relapsing type MS.
gamma- chronic granulomatous disease
All do MHC1 induction. gamma does MHC2 induction as well.

6

thymic hormones

Immunostimulant. useful in children with immune deficiency.

7

levamisole

Immunostimulant. Synthetic stimulant. Stimulates phagocytosis and T cell release of cytokines

8

BCG

Immunostimulant. bacterial adjuvant. Used to vaccinate against tuberculosis. enhances macrophage activity for melanomas and bladder cancer.

9

4 major classes of immunosuppressants:

corticosteroids
calcineurin inhibitors
anti-proliferative/antimetaboic agents
Biologic (antibodies)

10

Prednisone, dexamethosone, cortisol.

corticosteroid. decreases inflammation. increases apoptosis of lymphocytes. dexa is 20-30 times more potent than cortisol.

Transactivation and transrepression.

11

cyclosporine

immune suppression. cyclosporin binds cyclophylin, and that complex then inhibits calcineurin (so you dont get activation of NFAtc (nuclear factor of activated t cells), and so you get no IL2)

12

tacrolimus

Tacrolimus is also called FK506, and it binds to FKBP. that complex blocks calcineurin. immune suppression.

13

infliximab (remicade)

Anti-TNF alpha biologicals

14

Alefacept

lymphocyte activation (CD2) anti TNF alpha biological.

15

Etanercept

TNFalpha and beta (binds to it)

16

Muromonab CD3

blocks cytotoxicT cell killing. better than just steroids alone.

17

anti-thymocyte globulin

causes longlived peripheral lymphocyte depletion, and eventually depletion of thymocyte dependent lymphoctyes. Humoral immunity remains intact, cellular is affected.

18

basiliximab

mouse Igg for human CD25 ( the IL2 receptor (alpha chain) on active lymphocytes)

19

daclizumab

Binds to alpha chain of IL2 receptor, similar to basiliximab but method of admin differs.

20

How are MS exaccerations treated?

glucocorticoids- side effects limit chronic use.

21

glatiramir acetate

Used to treat relapsing remitting MS. it mimics 4 amino acids of the Myelin basic protein, and acts as a decoy. There is a shift from proinflam Th1 cells to Th2 cells

22

mitoxanrone

Type 2 topoisomerase inhibitor. suppresses proliferation of T and B cells, and macrophages. Treats relapsing remiting (worsening), secondary progressive, and progressive-relapsing MS.

23

Tysabryi

monoclonal antibody against the cellular adhesion molecule alpha 4 integrin, which is what helps immune cells bind to endothelial cells and cross the BBB.

24

Fampridine

neuronal potassium blocker. enables the axon to transmit nerve impulses again. improves walking an coordination but does not alter disease progression.

25

Fingolimod

modulates the sphingosine 1

26

Fingolimod

modulates the sphingosine 1 phosphate receptor. sequesters lymphocytes in lymph nodes.

27

dimethyl fumarate

trade name is tecfidera. Activates Nrf (increases expression of mitochondrial anti oxidant genes) reduces inflam and protects neurons. good safety! Sometimes diarrhea.

28

Muronomab CD3

inhibits cytotoxic T cells from killing things. Good for transplants.

29

anti-thymocyte globulin

Antibody against lymphocytes, generally the ones that are long lived and peripheral. It goes for the thymus-dependent ones eventually too. Good for transplants.

30

basiliximab

IL2 antagonist. binds CD25 (the alpha chain of the IL2 receptor, stops activated cells from being able to respond to IL2)

31

daclizumab

IL2 antagonist. binds CD25 (the alpha chain of the IL2 receptor, stops activated cells from being able to respond to IL2) same as basiliximab

32

epinephrine, ephedrine, isoproterol

Beta agonists. All sympathomimetics used to treat asthma. these are non specific.

33

atropine

muscarinic antagonists-block the effect of acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors, and causes vasodilation. good for asthma

34

ipatropium

muscarinic antags-block the effect of acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors, and causes vasodilation. good for asthma.

35

theophylline

methylxanthine drug. Inhibits PDE, and increases stability of cAMP. Also blocks adenosine receptors.

36

caffeine

methlyxanthine drug

37

prednisone

Corticosteroid, used to treat asthma, and also to suppress immune system.

38

Zileuton

leukotriene pathway inhibitors. 5 lipoxygenase inhibitor

39

Montelukast

Leukotriene pathway inhibitors. leukotriene receptor blocker.

40

Terbutaline, metaproterenol, and salbutamol.

Beta agonists. sympathomimetic used to treat asthma. These are specific, and have slower onset and last longer than their nonspecific counterparts.

41

theobromine

methylxanthine drug. Inhibits PDE, and increases stability of cAMP. Also blocks adenosine receptors.

42

maraviroc

Selective for CCR5 coreceptor of HIV. blocks CCR5 Gp120 interaction.

43

enfuvirtide

fusion inhibitor. Binds the HIV gp41, prevents it from binding its coreceptor.

44

NRTI (nuc and non nuc)

Nucs- act as nucleotides, and cause chain termination as the reverse transcriptase cannot add anymore nucleotides. Non nuc's just bind the reverse transcriptase.

45

protease inhibitor

Proteases are required to cleave the gag-pol polyprotein to create viable viruses, and inhibiting that= non-infectious viruses.

46

raltegravir

integrase inhibitor (integrase is needed to integrate the viral dna into the host cell's genome) treatment for HIV. Remember: integration was inhibited at family dinner due to ralt(gravi)r

47

acyclovir

treatment for herpes. competes for viral DNA polymerase, and causes irreversible binding to the DNA template.

48

amantadine,

anti influenza. blocks M2 proton channel of the virus, does not allow for uncoating.

49

tamiflu (oseltamivir)

sialic acid analog