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Flashcards in Thomas Becket Deck (27)
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1. Why was the Church so powerful in the Middle Ages? (5)

- People were terrified of going to Hell, so listened to the Church - Powerful individuals, including the king, gave money and land to the church to ensure they didn’t go to hell. (Land = Power in the middle ages) - Monks were some of the few members of society to be able to read and write - Nuns provided treatment to people - The Church sheltered travellers.


2. What were the Church Courts? (1)

Courts where members of the clergy were tried and punished.


3. Why were the Church Courts a problem for the King? (1)

The Church offered more lenient punishments than the Royal Courts


4. What is another name for the Church Courts? (1)

Ecclesiastical Courts


5. In what year was Becket born, who were his parents and where did he live? (3)

- Circa 1118 - Gilbert & Matilda Becket - Cheapside in London.


6. In what year was Becket appointed Chancellor of England? (1)



7. In what year was Becket appointed Archbishop of Canterbury and who did he replace? (2)

- 1162 - Theobald


8. What were the Constitutions of Clarendon? (1)

A document that made Henry II's rights over the Church clear.


9. When were the Constitutions of Clarendon signed? (2)

30th January 1164


10. What did the constitutions of Clarendon try to enforce? (3)

- The authority of the Pope - The rights that the King ‘enjoyed’ over the Church. - Bishops promising to observe these customs.


11. When was the Council of Northampton? (2)

October 1164


12. What were the results of the Council of Northampton? (3)

- The council found Becket guilty for failing to turn up - As punishment it is decided that he should lose his possessions - Becket decides to go into exile in France and Ranulf de Broc takes over a lot of his ‘land’.


13. Where does Becket go while in exile? (2)

Pontigny, France (in a monastery)


14. Who carried out the ‘crowning’ of Henry’s eldest son in June 1170 (2)

Archbishop of York & Bishop of London


15. Why was Becket so angry at the crowning of Henry’s eldest son? (2)

This was seen as an insult to Becket as it should have been performed by the Archbishop of Canterbury


16. What was ‘excommunication’? (2)

- The action of officially excluding someone from participation in the sacraments and services of the Church. - (Essentially, cut off from the Church)


17. What happens on 22nd July 1170? (2)

Henry & Becket meet at Freteval in Normandy and treat each other well.


18. What does Becket do on returning to England on the 1st December 1170? (3)

- He punishes all those involved in the young king’s coronation. - He brings with him an authorisation from the Pope for the excommunication of all bishops who had supported Henry.


19. Where was Henry in December 1170? (2)

Rouen, Normandy


20. When and where was Thomas Becket murdered? (3)

29th December 1170 Canterbury Cathedral


21. Who were the names of the four knights who murdered Thomas Becket? (4)

Reginald Fitzurse Hugh de Morville William de Tracy Richard le Breton


22. What was Henry said to have said, that inspired the knights to go and murder Becket? (1)

‘’Who will rid me of this turbulent priest?


23. What happened on the 21st February 1173? (2)

- Becket canonised (made a Saint) by Pope Alexander III. - Canterbury becomes a focus for pilgrimage


24. How does Henry II show that he is ‘sorry’? (4)

- In 1174 Henry walks through the city of Canterbury barefoot and in simple robes (1 for date and 1 for action) - He allowed 80 monks to symbolically whip him while kneeling by Becket’s tomb. (1 for action, 1 for amount of monks)


25. What happened to the four knights? (2)

- They were ordered to go on crusade and not much more is known of them.


Who was responsible for Becket’s death? (5)

UP FOR DEBATE, BUT: - The Church - Henry II - The four knights - Becket - Ranulf de Broc


27. What was Becket said to have said to Henry after being offered the role of Archbishop? (1)

"Our friendship will turn to hate"