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Flashcards in Thorax 2 Deck (118):
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What shape is the sternum

-flat
-elongated bone

1

What does the sternum form

The middle of the anterior part of the thoracic cage

2

What are the three parts of the sternum

- manubrium
- body
- xiphoid process

3

What is the sternal angle between

The manubrium and the body of the sternum

4

What is known as the trapezoidal bone

Manubrium

5

What part of the sternum is the thickest and the widest part

Manubrium

6

What is known as the easily palates venter of the superior border of the manubrium

The jugular notch

7

What does the claviclar notch connect

The clavicle and the sternum

8

What is attached to the lateral border if the manubrium

The costal cartilage of the first rib

9

Deceive what synchondrosis is

This is where the costal cartilage of the 1st rib meats the lateral border of the manubrium

10

Is there a synovial joint between the 1st rib and sternum?

No, it is a synchondrosis, that is why there is NO movement between the 1st rib and sternum

11

The manubristernal is Also called?

The sternal angle of Louis

12

What is the sternal angle a landmark for

Descending aorta

13

At what level of the vertebra is the body of the sternum located

From T5-T9

14

Why does the width of the body of the sternum vary

It varies because of the costal notches on the lateral parts of the sternum

15

Is the sternum separated or fused when you are born

It's starts off separated and fuses with adulthood

16

The joints between the sternebra begin to fuse when

Between puberty and age 25

17

Tell me when the different sternebrae fuse ( specifically what ages)

*remember these joints begin to fuse from the inferior end

(Closer to jugular notch) 1&2-age 60
2&3-age 25
3&4= age 19
4&5= age 12
5&6= age 40

18

What ossifies with age in the sternum

The Xiphoid process

19

What is the smallest and variable part of the sternum

The xiphoid process

20

At what vertebral level does the xhiphoid process lie

T10

21

What is cartilaginous in young people but may be ossified in adults

The xiphoid process

22

What may happen with old people in regards to the xiphoid process and the sternal body

It may fuse with the sternal body and become hardened, people often think it is a tumor

23

The xiphoid process is a landmark for what

The median plane

24

The infrasternal angle (sub costal angle) is located under what

The xiphoid process, in the inferior thoracic aperture

25

The xiphoid process is a midline marker for what structures

-The liver
- the central tendon of the diaphragm
- the inferior border if the heart

26

At what age do people normally become aware of the ossification of their xiphoid process

At around age 40

27

Are sternal fractures common?

No

28

What can cause a sternal fracture

Crush injuries where a person's chest can be slammed between the steering wheel and the seat

29

What has dramatically reduced the number if sternal fractures

Air bags:)

30

When a sternum is fractured it usually breaks how?

Comminuted fracture- usually breaks into many different peices

31

Why is displacements of fractures that happen in the sternum uncommon??

It is uncommon because the sternum is invested in the deep fascia and the sternal attachment if the pectoral is major muscles

32

Where is the most common site for a sternal fracture

The sternal angle!!

33

Why is there such a concern with sternal injuries

Because it could cause a myocardial contusion, cardiac rupture, and tamponade

Basically it can hurt the heart!!

34

For cardiac tamponade can you save the patient?

Yes if you work quickly

35

What is the percentage if people who die due to sternal fractures

25-45%

36

All patients with sternal contusions should be evaluated for what??

Underlying visceral(organ) injury

37

Compression of the heart by an accumulation of fluid in the pericardial sac is known as what

Tamponade

38

When a laceration or tearing of the walls of the ventricles or atria has been made or the interventricular septum or the papillary muscles or the chordate trendiness, had been made this is known as what

Cardiac rupture

39

What is referred to as a contusion it bruise of the cardiac muscle?

Myocardial contusion

40

What usually causes a myocardial contusion?
What portion of the heart is thought to be the most easy for a myocardial contusion to occur

Usually due to blunt trauma of the anterior part of the thoracic wall

The right part of the heart is most likely to have this occur due to the position

41

What is another name for a myocardial infraction

A heart attack

42

What usually is caused by a blood clot of the heart and happens when the blood stops flowing to a part of the heart muscle

Myocardial infarction (HEART ATTACK)

43

What is performed to gain access to the thoracic cavity during surgical procedures in the mediastinum

Median sterenotomy

44

When performing a median sterenotomy where is the sternum split

In the median plane of the sternum, and then it is retracted (pulled towards the right and left)

45

What enables spreading the sternum into two halves

The flexibility of the ribs and their costal cartilages!

46

What gives good exposure for removal of rumors and the superior lobes of the lungs

Sternal splitting(median sternotomy)

47

What do surgeons use to join the sternum together after a sternotomy

Wire sutures

48

What can the sternal body be used for, other than a sternotomy

A bone marrow biopsy, because of its width and subcutaneous position

49

What is aplastic anemia

This is when blood marrow begins to be replaced by fibrous tissue

THIS CAN CAUSE DEATH DUE TO LACK OF BLOOD CELLS

50

What are the names for the superior and inferior openings of the thoracic wall

1. Superior thoracic aperture
2. Inferior thoracic aperture

51

Which thoracic aperture allows communicate with the neck and upper limbs

The superior thoracic aperture

52

Which thoracic aperture provides a ring like origin if the diaphragm

Inferior thoracic opening

53

What completely occluded the opening if the inferior thoracic aperture

The diaphragm

54

What primarily controls the volume and internal pressure of the thoracic cavity

Diaphragm

55

What is the posterior portion of the superior thoracic aperture
- anterior
-lateral

- T1
- manubrium
- 1st rib

56

What structures pass through the superior thoracic aperture

-trachea
-esophagus
- nerves
- vessels (supply and drain the neck and upper limbs)

57

Why does the superior aperture slant forward

Because of the obliquity of the 1st pair ribs

58

Which aperture is more spacious

The inferior thoracic aperture

59

The diaphragm separates what

The thorax and the abdominal cavity

60

The diaphragm has three opening for what

Inferior Vena cava hiatus
Aortic hiatus
Esophagus hiatus

61

The domes of the diaphragm raise to where

The 4th intercostal space

62

What muscles occupy the intercostal spaces

Intercostal muscles

63

The superficial layer of the intercostal muscles are what? The inner layer is what?

-external intercostals
- internal intercostals

64

Putting your hands in your front pockets of your jeans represents the direction of what intercostal muscles

External

65

How many pairs are there of external intercostal muscles

11

66

When are the external intercostal muscles most active

During FORCED inspiration

67

When are the internal intercostal muscles most active

During FORCED explorations

68

Do you necessarily need the intercostal muscles for regular breathing

No, not during forced

69

How many pairs are there of internal intercostals

11

70

Which internal intercostal muscles are the weakest

The internal intercostal muscles

71

When are the internal intercostal muscles most active

During expiration

72

What separates the innermost intercostal kicked from the internal intercostal muscles

Intercostal nerves and vessels

73

Where are the subcostal mucked located?

In the lower thoracic wall

74

The subcostal muscles act with what other muscle

The internal intercostals

75

Where are the transverse thoracic (transverse thoracis)

They attach to the inferior part of the body of the sternum, and the posterior portion of the xiphoid process

76

How many slips do the transverse thoracis consist of

4 of 5 slips

77

What costal cartilages do the transverse thoracis muscles attach too

2nd-6th costal cartilages

78

Do the transverse thoracic muscles affect expiration?

Only a little bit they pull down on the costal cartilages that they attach too

79

What may provide propioceptive information( let you know how far you are bending so you don't fall over)

Transverse thoracis muscles

80

What is the primary muscle of inspiration

Diaphragm

81

Is expiration passive or active motion

Passive motion

82

What are examples of forced expiration

Coughing
Sneezing
Blowing your nose
Shouting

83

What does dyspnea mean

Difficulty breathing

84

What muscles do people use to breathe when they have heart problems or asthma

I.e they have to bend over to expand their thoracic cavity

Or they lean over a chair

Accessory respiratory muscles

85

Mammary glands are accessory to reproduction of women but what to men

Functionless

86

Glandular system of breast do not develop in who

Men

87

What are the most prominent superficial structures in the anterior thoracic wall, especially in women

The breasts

88

What determines the size if the non lactating breasts

Amount if fat surrounding the glandular tissue

89

The nipple is surrounded by what?

The areola it is a pigmented portion if skin

90

What is the most prominent sweat gland in both men and women

The breasts

91

He breast lines between what ribs

2nd-6th

92

2/3 of the breast are formed by what

The pectoral fascia that overlies the pectoralis major

93

1/3 of the breast is where

Formed by the fascia that covers the serratus anterior

94

Where is the retromammary space (bursa)

Between the breast and the pectoral fascia

95

A small part if the mammary gland can extend to where

To the axillary fossa(armpit)

96

Why is it that when men have breast cancer it is spread to the body faster

Because they have no retromammary space, so there is no barrier between boob and body

97

Why is pain in the breasts during menstrual cycle normal

Because water accumulates in the tissue

98

How is the beast attached to the dermis of the overlying skin

By skin ligaments called Reticula Cutis

99

Where are more Reticula cutis located

More in the upper portion of the boob

This helps support the mammary gland lobules

100

What are the ligaments that attach to the dermis and have more in the upper portion of the boob compared to the bottom

The suspensory ligaments of Cooper

101

At what she in puberty do the boobs normally enlarge

Sitting 8-15

102

What three things determine breast size

Genetics
Ethnicity
Diet

103

How many lobules of glandular tissue are there in the boob

15-20

104

What portion of the breasts produce milk

The lobules

105

Each lobule is drained by what

A lactiferous duct

106

Where does the lactiferous duct open

Independently on the nipple

107

Deep to the areolar the lactiferous ducts beach have a dilated portion called what

Lactiferous sinus

108

The small milk droplets that accumulates and that can maintain in the nursing mother happens where

Lactiferous sinus

109

What contains many sebaceous glands in the breast

Areola

110

What enlarges during pregnancy and secretes and oily substance to provide chapping if the nipple

The areolar

111

What part of the breast has no hair, fat or sweat gland

The nipple

112

What portion of the breast is composed if circularly arranged smooth muscle fibers that compress the lactiferous duct during lactation

The nipple

113

What happens to nipples in response to stimulation?

They erect

114

JUST FOR YOUR KNOWLEDGE GUYS:))

The Breasts don't produce milk during pregnancy because a high level of progesterone is present, but once the baby is born the progesterone drops there for stimulating secretion from the breasts because prolactin increases and stops the progesterone production

You are welcome:)

115

What is a modified sweat gland

Mammary gland

116

Most of the volume of the breast is produced by what

The subcutaneous fat

117

What have some people been known to use as a natural contraceptive

Breast feeding