What are 5 approaches to studying anatomy?
Identify the following 8 body regions
Define the following planes:
3. Frontal (coronal)
1. Median: vertical; divides body longitudinally into Right & Left halfs.
2. Sagittal: vertical; divides body longitudinally parallel to a median plane.
3. Frontal (coronal): vertical; divides body longitudinally into Anterior (front) & Posterior (back) --> at a right angle to median plane
4. Transverse (transaxial/axial): horizontal; divides body latitudinally into Superior (upper) & Inferior (lower) parts --> at right angles to median and frontal planes
Name 3 types of anatomical sections (as used in dissection)
1. longitudinal section
2. transverse section
3. oblique section
Articulate the difference between the terms "superficial", "intermediate", and "deep"
Superficial: Toward the surface
Intermediate: Between a Superficial and Deep structure
Deep: Away from the surface of the body
Give another commonly used term for each of the following directional terms:
1. superior - Cranial
2. inferior - Caudal
3. posterior - Dorsal
4. anterior - Rostral
5. proximal - Nearer
6. distal - Farther
7. medial - towards the middle
8. lateral - towards the side
9. internal - inner
10. external - outer
Flexion: bending or decreasing the angle between the bones or parts of the body
Extension: straightening or increasing the angle between the bones or parts of the body
Dorsiflexion: lifting the toes off the ground (EVERSION)
Plantarflexion: turns the foot or toes toward the plantar surface (INVERSION)
Hyperextension: extension of a limb or part beyond the normal limit
Abduction : moving away from the median plane in the frontal plane
Adduction: moving toward the median plane in a frontal plane
Circumduction: circular movement that is a combination of flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction occurring in such a way that the distal end of the part moves in a circle
Rotation: turning or revolving a part of the body around its longitudinal axis (medial/lateral)
Pronation: HAND: rotational movement of the forearm and hand that swings the radius; FOOT: lowering of the medial margin of the foot
Supination: HAND: rotational movement of the forearm and hand
FOOT: raising the medial margin of the foot
Opposition: pad of the 1st digit (thumb) is brought to another digit pad.
Reposition: 1st digit from the position of opposition back to its anatomical position.
Protrusion: movement anteriorly (forward) (~PROTRACTION)
Retrusion: movement posteriorly (backward) (~RETRACTION)
Elevation: raises or moves a part superiorly
Depression: lowers or moves a part inferiorly
What is the "skin" system called?
What are its layers?
- epidermis (superfcial)
- dermis (deep)
How many layers does the epidermis have (what are they called)?
what are their functions?
What are 2 significant structural details about the epidermis?
- superficial layer: protective
- Basal layer: regeneration, pigmentation
*absence of blood vessels
*very few nerve endings
1.What is the structure of the dermis?
2.what elements does it contain?
3.What is the function of the dermis layer?
1. dense layer of interlacin collagen an elastic fibers
2. hair follicles, sebaceous glands
sweat glands (& sm. arteries -> thermoregulation),
arrector pili muscles
3. tone, strength, toughness, ~ thermoregulation
1. what is another name for it (2)?
2. what layer(s) are directly superficial and deep to it?
3. what structures does it contain?
4. what is its function?
1. subcutaneous tissue OR hypodermis
2. it is deep to the dermis; it is superficial to the deep facia
3. sweat gland, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, cutaneous nerve, skin ligament (retinacula cutis)
4. fat storage, thermoregulation, protection of skin
What are tension lines?
what are the effects of cutting parellel to them vs. across them?
1. "Langer’s lines" specific direction of collagen fibers in dermis
2. A. Incision parallel to tension lines:
- less gape
- shorter healing time
- less scar tissue development
B. Incision across tension lines:
- more likely to gape
- longer healing time
- greater scar tissue development
What is the structure and function of the deep fascia?
structure: dense connective tissue layer devoid of fat; body coverage parallel to skin and superficial fascia
function: Packaging and insulating tissue for deep structures
What is investing fascia?
What is a fascial compartment?
How does deep fascia articulate with bone?
- extensions from internal surface of deep fascia
- group of muscles with same innervation and function
- separation of fascial compartments by intermuscular septum (thick sheet of deep fascia)
Deep Fascia bone: fusion of deep fascia with periosteum
what is subserous fascia and where is it located?
Subserous fascia: between musculoskeletal walls and serous membranes lining body cavities (endothoracic, endoabdominal, and endopelvic fasciae)
what is the thickening of deep fascia near certain joints (e.g., ankle, wrist) called?
what is a bursa?
what is its function?
why is it considered potential space?
closed sac of serous membrane
capable of secreting lubricating fluid
friction-free movement of structures against each other
Potential space because…
- no depth
- thin film of lubricating fluid between adjacent walls of bursa
- accumulation of excess fluid within bursa → transformation of potential space into actual space (pathological)
Name 4 types of bursa & their location
Subcutaneous bursa between skin and bony prominences
Subfascial bursa below deep fascia
Subtendinous bursa between tendon and bony surface
Synovial tendon sheath around tendons (specialized elongated bursa)
How does a bursal sac articulate with internal organs (layers & function)?
Internal organs are srrounded by collapsed bursal sacs
visceral (inner) layer adjacent to wall of organ
parietal (outer) layer adjacent to body wall
(parietal layer continuous with visceral layer)
function: friction-free movement of organ within a confined space