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Flashcards in Anatomy Intro. (Grace's) Deck (20):

What are 5 approaches to studying anatomy?

Regional anatomy

Systemic anatomy

Surface anatomy

Radiographic anatomy

 Clinical anatomy


Identify the following 8 body regions


Define the following planes:

1. Median

2. Sagittal

3. Frontal (coronal)

4. Transverse 

1. Median: vertical; divides body longitudinally into Right & Left halfs.

2. Sagittal: vertical; divides body longitudinally parallel to a median plane.

3. Frontal (coronal): vertical; divides body longitudinally into Anterior (front) & Posterior (back) --> at a right angle to median plane

4. Transverse (transaxial/axial): horizontal; divides body latitudinally into Superior (upper) & Inferior (lower) parts --> at right angles to median and frontal planes




Name 3 types of anatomical sections (as used in dissection)

1. longitudinal section

2. transverse section

3. oblique section


Articulate the difference between the terms "superficial", "intermediate", and "deep"

—Superficial: Toward the surface—
—Intermediate: Between  a Superficial and Deep structure
—Deep: Away from the surface of the body


Give another commonly used term for each of the following directional terms:

1. superior

2. inferior

3. posterior

4. anterior

5. proximal

6. distal

7. medial 

8. lateral 

9. internal 

10. external 

1. superior - Cranial

2. inferior - Caudal

3. posterior - Dorsal

4. anterior - Rostral

5. proximal -  Nearer

6. distal - Farther

7. medial - towards the middle

8. lateral - towards the side

9. internal - inner

10. external - outer














Flexion: bending or decreasing the angle between the bones or parts of the body

Extension: straightening or increasing the angle between the bones or parts of the body

Dorsiflexion: lifting the toes off the ground (EVERSION)

Plantarflexion: turns the foot or toes toward the plantar surface (INVERSION)

Hyperextension: extension of a limb or part beyond the normal limit 

Abduction : moving away from the median plane in the frontal plane 

Adduction: moving toward the median plane in a frontal plane

Circumduction: circular movement that is a combination of flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction occurring in such a way that the distal end of the part moves in a circle

Rotation: turning or revolving a part of the body around its longitudinal axis (medial/lateral)

Pronation: HAND: rotational movement of the forearm and hand that swings the radius; FOOT: lowering of the medial margin of the foot

Supination: HAND: rotational movement of the forearm and hand 

FOOT: raising the medial margin of the foot

Opposition: pad of the 1st digit (thumb) is brought to another digit pad.

Reposition: 1st digit from the position of opposition back to its anatomical position.

Protrusion: movement anteriorly (forward) (~PROTRACTION)

Retrusion: movement posteriorly (backward) (~RETRACTION)

Elevation: raises or moves a part superiorly

Depression: lowers or moves a part inferiorly


What is the "skin" system called?

What are its layers?

Integumentary system

skin layers:

- epidermis (superfcial)

- dermis (deep)


How many layers does the epidermis have (what are they called)?

what are their functions?

What are 2 significant structural details about the epidermis?

2 layers:

- superficial layer: protective

- Basal layer: regeneration, pigmentation


*absence of blood vessels

 *very few nerve endings


1.What is the structure of the dermis?

2.what elements does it contain?

3.What is the function of the dermis layer?


1. dense layer of interlacin collagen an elastic fibers

2. hair follicles, sebaceous glands

sweat glands (& sm. arteries -> thermoregulation), 

arrector pili muscles

3. tone, strength, toughness, ~ thermoregulation


Superficial Fascia

1. what is another name for it (2)?

2. what layer(s) are directly superficial and deep to it?

3. what structures does it contain? 

4. what is its function?



1. subcutaneous tissue OR hypodermis

2. it is deep to the dermis; it is superficial to the deep facia

3. sweat gland, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, cutaneous nerve, skin ligament (retinacula cutis)

4. fat storage, thermoregulation, protection of skin



What are tension lines?

what are the effects of cutting parellel to them vs. across them?

1. "Langer’s lines" specific direction of collagen fibers in dermis


2. A. Incision parallel to tension lines:

- less gape

 - shorter healing time

 - less scar tissue development

 B. Incision across tension lines:

  —-  more likely to gape

 - longer healing time

  —- greater scar tissue development


What is the structure and function of the deep fascia?

structure: dense connective tissue layer devoid of fat; body coverage parallel to skin and superficial fascia

function: Packaging and insulating tissue for deep structures


What is investing fascia?

What is a fascial compartment?

How does deep fascia articulate with bone?

Investing fascia:

  —  - extensions from internal surface of deep fascia

Fascial compartment:

  - group of muscles with same innervation and   function

  - separation of fascial compartments by intermuscular septum (thick sheet of deep fascia)

Deep Fascia bone: fusion of deep fascia with periosteum


what is subserous fascia and where is it located?


Subserous fascia: between musculoskeletal walls and serous membranes lining body cavities (endothoracic, endoabdominal, and endopelvic fasciae)


what is the thickening of deep fascia near certain joints (e.g., ankle, wrist) called?



what is a bursa?

what is its function?

why is it considered potential space


  —  closed sac of serous membrane

  —  capable of secreting lubricating fluid


   friction-free movement of structures against each other

 Potential space because…

  - no depth

  - thin film of lubricating fluid between adjacent walls of bursa

  - accumulation of excess fluid within bursa → transformation of potential space into actual space (pathological)


Name 4 types of bursa & their location


Subcutaneous bursa between skin and bony prominences

Subfascial bursa below deep fascia

Subtendinous bursa between tendon and bony surface

Synovial tendon sheath around tendons (specialized elongated bursa)


How does a bursal sac articulate with internal organs (layers & function)?

 Internal organs are srrounded by collapsed bursal sacs

visceral (inner) layer adjacent to wall of organ

 parietal (outer) layer adjacent to body wall

 (parietal layer continuous with visceral layer)


 function: friction-free movement of organ within a confined space