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Flashcards in Throax Deck (81)
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1

X-ray colouring explained

White- dense so rays don't pass through
Grey- some pass through, soft tissue
Black- all pass through, air/fat

2

Contrasting agents

Barium
Iodine

3

3 planes in imagery

Sagittal
Axial
Coronal

4

Difference between T1 and T2 MRI

T1 fluid is black
T2 fluid is white

5

Difference in CT and MRI

Fat is black in CT and white in MRI
Bone marrow is grey in CT
Cortical bone is white in CT and black in MRI

6

PET scan shows

Which tissues are metabolically active, useful for showing cancers

7

Describe rib formation with sternum

Rib 1 costal cartilage joins to manubrium
Rib 2 joins at sternal angle
Ribs 3-7 joins to the body With 7th on xiphoid-body joint
8-10 join costal cartilages above

8

Categories the ribs

Ribs 1-7 are true ribs
Ribs 8-10 are false ribs
Ribs 11 and 12 are floating ribs

9

What is located in thoracic inlet

Subclavian arteries and veins
Internal jugular veins
Common carotid arteries
Oesophagus
Trachea
Apex of lungs

10

External intercostal formation and direction

Form inferiorly and laterally from lower border of rib above
Run inferiorly and anteriorly from rib above in oblique direction

11

Internal intercostal formation and direction

Formations begin at lower border of rib above to the rib below
Are at 90degrees to external intercostal
Run inferiorly and posteriorly in oblique direction

12

Innermost Intercostal

Deepest and extend in same direction as internal intercostal

13

Intercostal nerve origins

Originate from ventral ramus of spinal nerve giving formation of lateral and anterior cutaneous branches

14

Intercostal bundles

Vein- most superior
Artery
Nerve

15

Intercostal artery origin

Posteriorly anastomoses with aorta
Anteriorly anatomoses with thoracic artery

16

Anterior branching of intercostal arteries

Spaces 1-6 have direct branches off of internal thoracic artery
7-9 have branches off the end branches
10-11 have no anterior branches

17

Mediastinum

Area between the two lungs in the thorax

18

Parts of the pectoralis major

Sternoclavicular head- originates from sternum and first 7 costal cartilage
Clavicular head- originates from anterior surface of medial half of clavicle
Join to humerus

19

Subclavius

Passes laterally from where rib 1 meets costal cartilage to middle third of clavicle
Contracts clavicle medially to stabilise joint

20

Pectoralis Minor

Passes from anterior surface of ribs 3-5 to carotids process of scapula

21

Trachea levels

From C6 to T4/5

22

Lobes and fissures of each lung

Right has inferior, middle and superior lobes
Oblique fissure separates superior from muddle and inferior and horizontal fissure separates middle and inferior
Left has an oblique fissure which separates superior and inferior

23

Spaces in pleural cavity

Costodiaphragmatic recess- inferior
Costomediastinal recess- medial

24

Margin of diaphragm

Attaches to xiphoid proces
Costal cartilage
Floating ribs
Lumbar vertebrae and median arcuate ligament

25

Breathing mechanics

Ribs are thrusted forward and upwards like a bucket handle
Increases transverse diameter of thoracic cavity
Contraction of diaphragm increases vertical diameter of thoracic cavity
Overall reduces pleural pressure and causes entry of air

26

Superior Mediastinum Outline

From thoracic inlet to line from sternal angle to between t4/5

27

Division of mediastinum

Above sternal angle is the superior
Below is inferior which is divided into anterior, middle(pericardial sac) and inferior

28

Azygous vein function and divisions

Drains posterior wall of thorax and abdomen arching over right lung root to sac
Provides veins for intercostal space
Produces hemiazygous and accessory hemiazygous (superior to hemiazygous)

29

Shunts that change at birth

Ductus arteriosis to ligamentus arterosis
Foreamen ovale to ovale fossa

30

Right Vagus Pathway

Lies beside trachea
Posterior to brachiocephalic vein and anterior to arteries
Crosses posterior to root of lung
Right recurrent laryngeal goes around right subclavian
Breaks up into batches on oesophagus