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Flashcards in Thyroid disease Deck (35)
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1

Where is the thyroid gland situated?

In front of the trachea, just below Adam's apple

2

What are the functional units of the thyroid gland called?

Thyroid follicles

3

What are thyroid follicles filled with?

Thyroglobulin - acts as a store for iodide

4

What is iodide needed for?

Production of thyroid hormone

5

Parafollicular C cells are also found in the thyroid gland. Where are they situated?

Between follicles

6

What is the role of parafollicular C cells?

Secrete calcitonin - involved in calcium homeostasis

7

Which enzyme converts T4 into T3?

Iodothyronine deiodinases

8

Where is DIO1 predominantly found?

Liver, kidney, muscles and thyroid gland

9

Where is DIO2 predominantly found?

CNS and pituitary thyrotropes

10

Which DIO produces most of the circulating T3?

DIO1

11

Which DIO controls intracellular T3 concentration?

DIO2

12

Which DIO produces rT3?

DIO3

13

How many genes do thyroid hormone receptors have?

2 - THRA and THRB found in the nucleus

14

Which receptor do thyroid hormone receptors form a heterdimer with?

Retinoid X receptor

15

What are the 5 biological elements of thyroid hormone?

Control of metabolic rate
Growth
Foetal development
CV effects
Musculoskeletal effect

16

What are the symptoms of hypothyroidism?

Lethargy
Hair loss
Memory loss
Weight gain

17

What are the 3 thyroid function tests that can be performed to diagnose hypothyroidism?

Unbound T4
TSH
Thyroid peroxidase antibody

18

In primary hypothyroidism, what happens to unbound T4 and TSH?

Increased TSH
Decreased unbound T4

19

What are carbimazole and propylthiouracil used to treat and how do they work?

Hyperthyroidism
Work by interfering with thyroid hormones synthesis by inhibiting thyroid peroxidase activity

20

What is used to treat hypothyroidism?

Levothyroxine

21

Why may B-blockers need to be given TDS/QDS in hyperthyroidism?

Because metabolism is increased

22

What is B-blockers place in therapy in hyperthyroidism?

Adjuvant therapy - rapid relief of symptoms (tachycardia, tremor etc.)

23

Which 3 drugs can cause thyroid disease?

Iodine
Amiodarone
Lithium

24

Which thyroid disease can iodine deficiency cause?

Hypothyroidism

25

How can amiodarone cause mild hyperthyroidism?

Blocks conversion of T4 to T3 therefore increases TSH and T4

26

How can amiodarone cause hypothyroidism?

Inhibition of the synthesis and release of T3 and T4

27

How does lithium cause hypothyroidism?

Inhibits iodine uptake and prevents T3 and T4 release

28

Which two hormones regulate calcium homeostasis?

Calcitronin
Parathyroid hormone

29

What is the main function of calcitonin?

Reduce blood calcium concentration

30

How many parathyroid glands do most people have?

four - located on posterior surface of thyroid gland