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Flashcards in Tissues Deck (51):
1

What are the three shapes of epithelial cells

Cuboidal
Squamous
Columnar

2

What do squamous cells look like and why

Flat for fast absorption and diffusion, making thin membranes

3

What shape are cuboidal cells and why

Cube shape, absorb nutrients and produce secretions

4

What do columnar cells look like and why

Tall and thick columns, cushion underlying tissues, absorb nutrients and produce secretions

5

What is a simple epithelium

One layer of cells

6

What is a stratified epithelium

Multiple layers set on top of each other, like bricks

7

What is pseudo stratified epithelium

Mostly one layer
Cells can be different shapes and sizes

8

What is simple squamous epithelium

Single layer
Flat, scale like cells

9

What is a stratified cuboidal tissue

Layers of cube shaped cells

10

Are epithelial cells polar or non polar

Polar

11

What is the apical and basal side of epithelial cells

Apical - above
Basal - below (basement membrane)

12

Are epithelial cells selectively permeable or not

Yes they allow some level of absorption, filtration and excretion of substances

13

What does the tissue lining small intestine allow

Allows you to absorb nutrients through diffusion and active transport

14

What does glandular epithelium form

Endocrine glands
Exocrine glands

15

What do endocrine glands do

Secrete hormones right into bloodstream or to nearby cells

16

What do exocrine glands do

Secrete juices into tubes or ducts that lead to outside of body

17

What are the four types of connective tissue

Proper
Cartilage
Bone
Blood

18

What does fat do as a connective tissue

Type of proper connective tissue which provides insulation and fuel storage

19

How do your bones tendons and cartilage act as connective tissue

Bind, support and protect your organs and give you a skeleton so you can move with purpose

20

How does your blood act as connective tissue

Transports nutrients, hormones and other material all over your body

21

What are the three factors which set connective tissue apart from other tissue types

All develop from mesenchyme - a loose fluid embryonic tissue
Have different degrees of vascularity, or blood flow
All are mostly composed of non living material - extracellular matrix

22

What is the extra cellular matrix made of in connective tissue

Ground substance
Proteoglycans

23

What is ground substance

Ground substance - watery, rubbery, unstructured material that fills in spaces between cells and protects the cells

24

What are proteoglycans

Proteoglycans - anchor the ground substance, has lots of glycosaminoglycans radiating out of proteins

25

What are the types of fibres throughout the ground substance

Collagen
Elastic
Reticular

26

What are collagen fibres

Strongest and most abundant type of fibre
Tough and flexible strand of protein

27

What are elastic fibres

Long and thin that provide a branching framework in the matrix
Made of protein elastin allowing stretch and recoil like rubber bands

28

What are reticular fibres

Short, finer collagen fibres
Extra coating of glycoprotein
Form sponge like networks that protect organs

29

What do blast cells function have

To secrete ground substance and fibres that form it’s unique matrix

30

What are chondroblasts

Blast cells of cartilage, build matrix around the cells forming spongy tissue cartilage

31

What are osteoblasts

Blast cells of bone, matrix is calcium carbonate which forms bone

32

When blast cells mature what are they called

Osteocytes
Chondrocytes

33

What do cyte cells do

Maintain the health of the matrix built by blasts, can sometimes revert back to blasts if matrix needs to repair

34

What types of proper connective tissue are there

Loose
Dense

35

What is loose connective tissue like

Areolar
Reticular
Adipose
Fewer fibres and more cells and more ground substance

36

What is dense connective tissue like

Regular
Irregular
Elastic
Lots

37

Where is areolar tissue found

Common loose connective tissue
Just under epithelial tissue and wrapped around organs
Elastic fibres
Collagen fibres
Fibroblast cells

38

What is your adipose tissue

Fat tissue
Mostly cells, adipocytes store lipids for later use, insulate body

39

What is reticular tissue

Woven mass of reticular fibres, provides soft internal framework/ stroma of spleen, lymph nodes and bone marrow
Supports developing blood cells
Holds blood in place in many organs

40

What is dense regular tissue

Tight bundles of collagen fibres running parallel
Provide resistance to tension when exerted in one direction
Found in tendons and ligaments

41

What is dense irregular tissue

Fibres thick
Arranged irregularly
Found where tension might be exerted in lots of different directions

42

What is dense elastic tissue

Connects vertebrae is spine can curve and twist
Provides support and flexibility in blood vessels

43

What is cartilage

Has no blood or nerves and withstands tension and compression

44

What is hyaline cartilage

Most common
Provides pliable support
Chondrocytes
Looks glassy

45

What is elastic cartilage

Has more elastic fibres
Found where strength and stretch ability is needed

46

What is fibro cartilage

Shock absorber
Thick fibres of collagen dominate it
Makes up discs between vertebrae and knee joints

47

What is bone tissue

Calcified connective tissue for supporting and protecting various structures of body

48

What is spongy bone tissue

Found at heads of long bones
Inner layers of flat bones
Strong and porus
Uses extra room to make and store bone marrow

49

What is compact bone marrow

Dense with no visible spaces
Forms external layer of bones and stores calcium for bone cells to make more tissue

50

What is blood connective tissue

Blood develops from mesenchyme
Ground substance is blood plasma with protein fibres floating in

51

What are the different blood cells

Erythrocytes
Leukocytes
Platelets