What are the humoral components of the innate immune system?
Transferrin and lactoferrin
What are the cellular components of the cellular innate immune system?
Macrophages and Monocytes
Basophils and Mast cells
Natural Killer cells
For the functions of these cells as per learning objective 10.4 and 11.1, see TOB - S10
There are no cards on their functions in this deck
What is the function of transferrin and lactoferrin?
Deprive micro-organisms of iron
What is the function of interferons?
Inhibit viral replication
What is the function of lysozyme?
Break down the peptidoglycan cell wall in bacteria
What is the function of fibronectin?
Opsonisation of bacteria hence promoting phagocytosis
What is the function of complement?
Cause destruction of micro-organisms directly or with the help of phagocytic cells
What is the function of TNF-alpha?
Suppress viral replication and activate phagocytes
What are the humoral components of the adaptive immune system?
What are the cellular components of the adaptive immune system?
T Helper cells
T Killer cells
Additional cards on the function of these cells can be found in TOB - S10
What is the function of cytokines?
Promotes the differentiation and proliferation of lymphocytes
What is the function of perforin?
Released by T Killer cells and destroys cell walls
What is the function of antibodies?
Protect the host by:
Neutralisation (prevents binding to epithelia)
Complement activation (enhances opsonisation and lysis)
Describe the function of inactivated T Helper cells
Become activated when CD4 binds to a specific antigen on the antigen complex of an antigen presenting cell
Once activated it clones itself into active T helper cells and T memory cells
What is the function of a T Killer cell?
Releases perforin and other proteins that induce apoptosis in an antigen presenting cell that has been 'marked' by antibodies.
What is the function of B cells?
Hint: Different types
Divide to form plasma cells and and B memory cells when activated by T-helper cells
Plasma cells produce large amounts of an antibody
B memory cells retain antibodies for previously encountered antigens to allow fast response upon antigen reintroduction
What are the main differences between innate and adaptive immunity?
Immediate response to infection
Present from birth
Not enhances by 2nd exposure
Poorly effective without adaptive response
Delayed response to infection
Arises from exposure to micro-organisms
Specific pathogen immunity
Enhanced by second exposure
Poorly effective without innate immunity
Label the red and blue lines and explain what the graph shows
Blue line = Innate immune system
Red line = Adaptive immune system
Graph shows very simply how innate immune response is much faster than adaptive response, howerver adaptive response lasts far longer than innate response
This graph shows how immune response is insuffiecient if innate or adaptive immune systems aren't present
What does this imply about immune function?
Implies interdependence and cooperation between innate and adaptive immune systems
What is opsonisation?
The coating of a micro-organism by antibodies or complement to render it recognisable as foreign by phagocytes, thus enhancing phagocytosis
Macrophages are cells of the innate immune system, but what is their involvement in the adaptive immune system?
Release of cytokines which stimulate production of lymphocytes
Act as professional anti-body presenting cells which can be recognised and destroyed by T Killer cells
Antibodies are compnents of the adaptive immune system, but what is their involvement in the innate immune system?
Activates complement, enhacing phagocytic response