TOB S11 - Innate and Adaptive Immunity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in TOB S11 - Innate and Adaptive Immunity Deck (22):
1

What are the humoral components of the innate immune system?

Transferrin and lactoferrin

Interferons

Lysozyme

Anti-microbial peptides

Fibronectin

Complement

TNF-alpha

2

What are the cellular components of the cellular innate immune system?

Macrophages and Monocytes

Neutrophils

Eosinophils

Basophils and Mast cells

Natural Killer cells

For the functions of these cells as per learning objective 10.4 and 11.1, see TOB - S10

There are no cards on their functions in this deck

3

What is the function of transferrin and lactoferrin?

Deprive micro-organisms of iron

4

What is the function of interferons?

Inhibit viral replication

5

What is the function of lysozyme?

Break down the peptidoglycan cell wall in bacteria

6

What is the function of fibronectin?

Opsonisation of bacteria hence promoting phagocytosis

7

What is the function of complement?

Opsonisation

Cause destruction of micro-organisms directly or with the help of phagocytic cells

8

What is the function of TNF-alpha?

Suppress viral replication and activate phagocytes

9

What are the humoral components of the adaptive immune system?

Cytokines

Perforin

Antibodies

10

What are the cellular components of the adaptive immune system?

Lymphocytes:

T Helper cells

T Killer cells

B cells

Additional cards on the function of these cells can be found in TOB - S10

11

What is the function of cytokines?

Promotes the differentiation and proliferation of lymphocytes

12

What is the function of perforin?

Released by T Killer cells and destroys cell walls

13

What is the function of antibodies?

Protect the host by:

Neutralisation (prevents binding to epithelia)

Opsonisation

Complement activation (enhances opsonisation and lysis)

14

Describe the function of inactivated T Helper cells

Become activated when CD4 binds to a specific antigen on the antigen complex of an antigen presenting cell

Once activated it clones itself into active T helper cells and T memory cells

15

What is the function of a T Killer cell?

Releases perforin and other proteins that induce apoptosis in an antigen presenting cell that has been 'marked' by antibodies.

16

What is the function of B cells?

Hint: Different types

Divide to form plasma cells and and B memory cells when activated by T-helper cells

Plasma cells produce large amounts of an antibody

B memory cells retain antibodies for previously encountered antigens to allow fast response upon antigen reintroduction

17

What are the main differences between innate and adaptive immunity?

Innate:

Immediate response to infection

Present from birth

Non-specific

Not enhances by 2nd exposure

No memory

Poorly effective without adaptive response

Adaptive:

Delayed response to infection

Arises from exposure to micro-organisms

Specific pathogen immunity

Enhanced by second exposure

Acquires memory

Poorly effective without innate immunity

18

Label the red and blue lines and explain what the graph shows

Q image thumb

Blue line = Innate immune system

Red line = Adaptive immune system

Graph shows very simply how innate immune response is much faster than adaptive response, howerver adaptive response lasts far longer than innate response

19

This graph shows how immune response is insuffiecient if innate or adaptive immune systems aren't present

What does this imply about immune function?

Q image thumb

Implies interdependence and cooperation between innate and adaptive immune systems

20

What is opsonisation?

The coating of a micro-organism by antibodies or complement to render it recognisable as foreign by phagocytes, thus enhancing phagocytosis

21

Macrophages are cells of the innate immune system, but what is their involvement in the adaptive immune system?

Release of cytokines which stimulate production of lymphocytes

Act as professional anti-body presenting cells which can be recognised and destroyed by T Killer cells

22

Antibodies are compnents of the adaptive immune system, but what is their involvement in the innate immune system?

Activates complement, enhacing phagocytic response