Tobacco and Smoking Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Tobacco and Smoking Deck (8)
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1

what factors influences smoking

• Social and cultural environment
• Personal environment
• Individual

2

Why do kids begin smoking

• A parent or elder sibling who smokes
• Living with a single or step parent
• Lower levels of parental supervision & more
nights out with friends
• Truanting, excluded from school, juvenile offending.
--> More common among disadvantaged

3

Whats in tobacco

• 4000 chemicals, 60 of which are known carcinogens
• Nicotine: Addictive part
• Carbon Monoxide (CO): Poisonous gas, binds to haemoglobin
• Tar: Thick, sticky

4

Describe nicotine addiction

Compulsive physiological and psychological need for a habit-forming substance
Characterised by compulsive drug seeking & use even in the face of negative health consequences
more addictive than heroin and cocaine

5

What are the effects of smoking on health

• Stimulates adrenal gland -> adrenalin
- increases heart rate, BP, breathing
- release glucose and suppresses insulin

• Binds to ‘nicotinic’ Acetylcholine receptors
- neurotransmitter – chemical messenger
- activates ‘reward pathway’
- perceived rush of Ach, receptors upregulated
- if not activated – cravings

• Releases chemical Dopamine
- pleasure pathway
- enjoyment and relaxation

• Tolerance
- (the body will require a certain amount of nicotine to stop cravings, so people go from using 1 cigarette a day to 15-20 cigarettes a day)

6

List some complications of smoking

COPD
Lung cancer
Stroke
Cancer of lips, tongue, throat
Narrowed arteries- CHD
Kidney cancer
Reduced fertility
cataracts
osteoporosis

7

What are nicotine withdrawal symptoms

depression
cravings
increased appetite
disturbed sleep
irritability
anxiety
poor concentration

8

describe the services which help people to quit smoking

pharmacotherapy (Nicotine Replacement Therapy / Champix (varenicline) / Zyban (bupropion)
In combination with support groups
smoking cessation