Organelle in top of sperm to digest egg cell membrane
Specific region on an enzyme where the reaction takes place
The movement of substances from a high concentration to a low concentration.
A test for reducing sugars that produces different colours based on the amount of reducing sugars present.
Benedict’s Test Results
Red: Large Amount
A test which turns purple when protein is present.
A method of measuring hear transfer during a chemical reaction.
Enzymes that break down carbs into simple sugars.
Large molecules that is synthesised from simple sugars.
The basic building blocks of life
A partially permeable barrier that surrounds the cell
An hotelier layer that strengthens plant cells
An organelle that is the site of photosynthesis.
A long coiled module of DNA that carries genetic information.
Hair like structures found on epithelial cells which waft substances into one direction
Ciliated Epithelial Cell
A type of epithelial cell that lines the respiratory track and uterus.
The difference of concentration in 2 areas.
The permanent change in shape of enzymes active site due to exposure to high temperatures or extremes of pH.
The net spreading out of particles from a high to low concentration.
A cell that contains two copies of each chromosome.
A specialised female cell involved in reproduction
A type of microscope that uses a beam of electrons focused by magnets to produce an image of a specimen. It has a greater magnification and resolution than a light microscope.
A test that produces a cloudy emulsion if lipids are present.
A biological catalyst that increase rate of reaction in living organisms.
A type of cell found in plants and animals that contains a nucleus.
A long hair like structure found on bacterias for movement.
A cell that contains a single copy of each chromosome.
A test that produces a blue/black colour when starch is present
A type of microscope that uses a series of lenses to magnify the light reflecting of a specimen.
Enzymes that break down fatty acids and glycerol
A large molecule that is synthesised from fatty acids and glycerol.
Lock and Key Hypothesis
A theory that describes how substrates must be the correct shape to fit the shape on an enzyme.
μm - 0.000001 of Meter (Power of -6)
mm - 0.001 of Meter (Power of -3)
An organelle that is the site of respiration.
nm - 0.000000001 of Meter (Power of -9)
A specialised structure found in a cell
Diffusion of water from a high concentration to a low one across a partially permeable membrane.
Change in Mass
(Final Mass - Initial Mass) / Initial Mass
pm - 0.000000000001 of Meter (Power of -12)
Loops of DNA found in cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells.
Enzymes that break down proteins into amino acids
Large molecules synthesised from amino acids
Rate of Reaction
The speed reactants are converted into products
The smallest distance between two objects that can be distinguished
Sub-Cellular structures that are the
sight of protein synthesis
A cell that has a structure which makes it adapted to its function
Describes the ability for an enzyme to catalyst only a particular reaction which a substrate fits the active site of an enzyme
A specialised male cell used in reproduction
An organelle found in plant cells that stores ap and supports the cell
Animal and Plant Cells are…
Bacterial Cells are…
Eukaryotic Cells have…
Cell Membrane, Cytoplasm and a Nucleus
Prokaryotic Cells have…
Cell Wall, Cell Membrane, Cytoplasm and Plasmids
Contains DNA for a particular protein to build new cells
Liquid substance were reactions occur and organelles are found in it
Controls what enters and leaves the cell
Where aerobic respiration reaction occur and produce energy for the cell
Where protein synthesis occurs
Only in plant cells…
Chloroplasts, Permanent Vacuole and a Cell Wall
Where photosynthesis occurs providing food for the plant.
In chloroplast and harvests light for photosynthesis
Sperm Cells have…
Streamlined heads, long tails, many mitochondria, acrosome and a haploid nucleus
Egg Cells have…
Many mitochondria, large size, haploid nucleus
Ciliated Epithelial Cells have…
Have cilia to move bacteria stuck in mucus to stomach to be killed by acid
Root Hair Cells have…
Large surface area and mitochondria
Root Hair Cells are for…
Taking water in to the plant by osmosis
Xylem Cells are for…
Transporting water and minerals around the plant
Phloem Cells are for..
Moving products of photosynthesis around the plant
How many lenses does a light microscope have?
Where are light microscopes usually luminated from?
Approximate Maximum Magnification of Light Microscope
Approximate Maximum Magnification of Electron Microscope
Magnification of Light Microscope
Magnification of Eyepiece Lens*Magnification of Objective Lens
Eyepiece of Microscope
Part of microscope to look through to see specimens
Barrell of Microscope
Part of microscope that can be moved to focus the image
Turret of Microscope
Part of microscope that is rotated to change magnification
Lens of Microscope
Increases magnification of specimen
Flat surface where specimen is placed
Why are chemical stains used
To see the specimen more clearly
Measured Size/Actual Size
What we change
What we keep the same
What we measure
What do enzymes do?
Controlling reactions, break up larger molecules and join smaller molecules.
Enzymes have an optimum…
pH, temperature and substrate concentration
Human body temperature is around…
Rate = Change / Time
Eg: 5g of protein takes 30 mins to convert-
Carboghydrases are produced in…
The salivary glands, pancreas and small intestine
Proteases are produced in…
The stomach, pancreas and small intestine
Lipases are produced in…
The pancreas and small intestine