Adult Stem Cells
Stem cells that can differentiate into a limited range of cell types
A form of reproduction involving a single parent that creates a genetically identical offspring
A long fibre that conducts nerve impulses away from the cell body
A non-communicable disease caused by changes in the cell that lead to uncontrolled growth
A cloudy patch that forms on the lens preventing light from entering the eye
The process where a cell becomes specialised for its function
The process which cells expand and enlarge enabling the growth of a plant.
Central Nervous System
The brain and spinal cord
The region of the brain the coordinates muscles and non-voluntary movement. (Eg: Balance and Posture)
One half of the cerebellum, each half controls corresponding half of the body
The largest region of the brain made of 2 hemispheres. Responsible for movement, memory, intelligence, language and vision.
One ‘arm’ of a replicated chromosome
A long coiled molecule of DNA that carries genetic information in the form of genes
A deficiency of the eye making it difficult to distinguish between colours.
Cells found in the retina that are sensitive to high light intensity (bright lights) and detect different colours.
The transparent out layer that reflects light entering the eye.
A imaging technique that uses X-Rays to make a detailed imagine of internal organs.
Short, branched extensions of dendrons that provide large surface areas to receive nervous impulses from other neurones
Branched extension of nerve cell body that connects to other neurones and carries impulses towards the body
A cell that contains 2 copies of each chromosome
An organ, tissue or cell that produces a response to a stimulus
Embryonic Stem Cells
Stem cells found very early in embryos that are unspecialised and capable of differentiating into any cell type
A sense organ containing receptors sensitive to light intensity and colours
An increase in mass or size
A cell that contains a single copy of each chromosome
A pigmented ring of muscles that controls the size of the pupil to alter how much light enters the eye
A transparent biconvex structure that refracts light focusing it onto the retina.
A defect of the eye where nearby objects appear out of focus due to convergence of light rays behind the retina. This occurs when the eyeball is too short or the less is less elastic. This is fixed using a convex lens.
The region of the brain that controls unconscious activity such as breathing and heart rate
Plant tissues containing undifferentiated stem cells
A neurone that carries nerve impulses from the CNS to the effectors.
A electrically insulating layer that surrounds the axon and increases the speed of nerve impulses
Nerve cells adapted to quickly transmit nerve impulses. They are the functional part of the Immune system
Chemicals that are used for communication between neurones and their target cells
A chart used to monitor growth or time. Can be compared to expected values helping to identify abnormal patterns.
An imaging technique used to assess the structure and function of the brain through the use of radioactive chemicals. Comparison to a normal brain can highlight unusually active or inactive areas.
A hole in the centre of the iris that allows light to enter the eye
A rapid and automatic response to a stimulus by the body
Stimulus Sensory Receptor Sensory Neurone Relay Neurone Motor Neurone Effector Response
A neurone that carries nerve impulses from sensory neurones to motor neurones within the CNS.
A light sensitive layer at the back of the eye composed of rod and come cells. It converts light into nerve signals sent to the brain
Cells found in the retina that are sensitive to low light intensity
A neurone that carries nerve impulses from receptors to the CNS
A specialised structure that detects a specific type of stimulus
A defect of the eye where distant object appear out of focus due to the convergence of the light rays in front of the retina. This occurs when the eyeball is too long or the lens is too thick and too rounded. It is corrected using a concave lens
Cells that are unspecialised and capable of differentiating into a range of cell types
A small gap in between neurones which a nerve impulse is transmitted via neurotransmitters.
Nucleus is made of…
Genetic information made of chromosomes containing DNA.
A short section of DNA that codes for a protein and controls a characteristic
How Many Pairs of Chromosomes are in Each Cell?
23 Pairs - 46 Chromosomes
Sex Cells Have…
Half the number of chromosomes
A diploid cell has…
A Haploid Cell Has…
Haploid Cell Examples
Sperm and Egg Cells
Cell Division is for…
Growth and development, replacing damaged cells and a vital part of asexual reproduction.
2 Identical Diploid Daughter Cells
A short section of DNA that codes for a protein.
Each chromosome carries many…
Amount of Chromosomes
23 Pairs (Half from Father and Half from Mother)
Sex Cells are also know as…
23 Chromosomes in Total
A diploid is…
23 Pairs of Chromosones
A Haploid is…
23 Chromosomes in Total
Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, Cytokinesis
DNA copies itself ready for mitosis.
DNA chromosome become more visible and membrane around nucleus disappears.
Chromosomes and their copies are line up in the middle of the cell.
Chromosomes and their copies are pulled to different ends of the cells.
New membranes form around the chromosomes at each end of the cell.
The cell membrane pinches in and divides the two daughter cells.
A form of cell division that produces two genetically identical cells (with full sets of chromosomes) from one parent cell.
Cancer is caused by…
Small changes in cells that lead to uncontrolled cell division. A group of these cells are called a tumour.
If a Child is in the 95th Percentile for Height it is…
Taller than 95% of children of the same age and shorter than 5% of children of the same age.
Form when an egg and sperm cell fuse to form a zygote.
Can differentiate into any cell in the body.
Can be replicated in lab conditions.
Adult Stem Cells
Found in bone marrow.
Can make many types of cell like red blood cells.
Found in plant roots and shoot tips.
Can differentiate into any type of plant.
Can be used to clones plants.