Topic 2 - Development Dynamics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 2 - Development Dynamics Deck (18):

What is GDP (gross domestic product) ? 

The total value of goods and services a country produces in a year. - (if it's GDP per capita, we divide this number by the population.) 


What is GNI (gross national income) ? 

The total value of goods and services produced by a country in a year, including any income from over seas - (if it is GNI per capita, divide this numbe by the population). 


What is fertility rate? 

The average number of births per woman. 


What is infant mortality rate? 

The number of babies who die under 1 year old, per thousand babies born. 


What is maternal mortality rate? 

The number of woman who die due to pregnacy related problems per hundred thousand live births. 


What is HDI (human development index) ?

This is a number thats calculated using life expectancy, education level and income per head - every country has a HDI value between 0 and 1. 


Name 6 factors that affect how developed a country is? 

Climate, shape of land/location, education, health, colonialism and economic/governmental


What consequences could 'uneven development' lead to, in terms of education? 

Poorer countries can't afford education, lack of education means people can't get better-paid jobs, and the cycle of poverty continues. 


What consequences could 'uneven development' lead to, in terms of health? 

People cannot afford healthcare, higher risk of diseases. 


What consequences could 'uneven development' lead to, in terms of politics? 

Inequalities can increase political instability, crime and cival wars are more likely, then the conflict will reduce development. 


What is globalisation? 

Globalisation is the process of countries becoming more intregated, the world's systems and cultures coming together like a single community. 


What causes globalisation? 

It happens because of the movement of money and people between countries, as well as businesses locating thier operations and selling thier products in more countries. 


Give 4 reasons why countries like china, india and brazil have all benefitted from globalisation? 

They have lots of cheap, raw materials. 

Hard working employees that will accept cheap pay. 

Available land

Governments are open for foreign investment. 


Give two differences of top-down and bottom-up strategies for development?  

Top-down consists of a large project, quite expensive, and ran by a government or large organisation. Whereas a bottom-up approach would consist of local people/small community do a more cheaper, smaller project.


What is an NGO? 

An NGO is a non-governmental organisation, and an IGO is an inter-governmental organisation. 


What is the studied emerging country? Give one example of the cultural importance. 

India, has a rich and diverse cultural background. 


How has the economy of India changed since 1990? 

India is getting rapidly wealthier, thier exports have changed from low value goods such as clothing, to high value goods such as machinery. 


Give one advantage and one disadvantage of foreign investment in India? 

Advantage = improved relations with other countries, cooperate on global issues

Disadvantage = increasing tensio between india nd china as both have rapidly growing economies.