Topic 2 - Materials From The Earth Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 2 - Materials From The Earth Deck (25)
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1

What type of rock are limestone and chalk?

Sedimentary

2

Limestone and chalk are easily

Broke away by wind, rain and waves

3

How are metamorphic rocks formed ?

They're formed by the action of heat and pressure on sedimentary rocks over long periods of one
The mineral structure and texture may have changed but the chemical composition is often the same as the original rock
As long as they don't melt they're classed as metamorphic

4

How is marble formed?

When limestone or chalk are broke down by very high temperatures and reforms as small crystals

5

How are igneous rocks formed?

When molten magma pushes up into the crust and cools and solidifies
They contain various different minerals in randomly arranged interlocking crystals

6

What are the two different types of igneous rocks?

Extrusive - cool quickly above ground forming small crystals
Intrusive - cool slowly underground forming big crystals

7

What can limestone be used for?

Buildings, statues, road surfacing

8

How is cement made?

Powdered limestone is heated in a kiln with powdered clay

9

How is concrete made?

By mixing cement with sand, water and gravel

10

How is glass made?

Heating limestone, sand and sodium carbonate until it melts

11

What environmental problems can quarrying limestone create?

- huge holes that permanently change the landscape
- quarrying processes make lots of noise and dust in quiet scenic areas
- destroys the habitat of animals and birds
- it needs to be transported away which causes noise and pollution
- waste materials produce tips

12

What are some useful uses of limestone?

- neutralising acidic soil
- houses, road
- neutralising sulfur dioxide in power station chimneys (cause of acid rain)
- quarrying provides jobs for people which improves the local economy and can lead to local improvements
- once quarrying is completed landscaping and restoration is normally required

13

How are sedimentary rocks formed?

- they're formed from layers of sediment laid dow in lakes and seas
- over millions of years the layers get buried under more layers and the weight pressing down squeezes out the water
a fluids flowing through the pores deposit natural mineral cement

14

Limestone is mainly

Calcium carbonate

15

When heated limestone thermally decomposes to make

Calcium oxide and carbon dioxide

16

Thermal decomposition of carbonates make

Carbon dioxide and an oxide

17

How easily a carbonate thermally decomposes depends on

The stability of the metal carbonate

18

Calcium oxide reacts with water to make

Calcium hydroxide

19

Calcium hydroxide is an

Alkali

20

Calcium hydroxide can be used

To neutralise acidic fields, it's quicker than calcium oxide

21

Calcium hydroxide dissolves in water to produce

Limewater

22

Metals that are Unreactive don't form

Compounds

23

Most metals form compiles which are found in

The earths crust

24

If a compound contains enough of the metal to make it worthwhile extracting it's called

A metal ore

25

Metal mores are

finite resources