Name the four types of pathogens.
List three ways that pathogens can be spread between plants or animals.
• Direct contact
What do bacteria produce to make us feel ill?
1. What type of pathogen causes Malaria?
2. What insect spreads malaria among people?
3. Suggests two ways to reduce the spread of malaria.
3. • Vaccination
• Controlling mosquitos e.g. nets / preventing them from breeding e.t.c.
1. What type of pathogen causes Measles?
2. How is this pathogen spread between people?
3. What are the symptoms of Measles?
4. How can you prevent yourself from getting measles?
2. Inhaling droplets from sneezes/coughs
3. Fever and red skin rash
1. What type of pathogen causes HIV?
2. What part of our body does the pathogen target and damage?
3. What drugs are used to treat HIV?
4. List two ways in which HIV is spread amongst people
2. Immune system
3. Antiretroviral drugs
4. Sexual contact / Sharing drug needles
1. What type of pathogen causes Salmonella?
2. What’s the most likely source of this pathogen?
3. How do farmers try to help prevent the spread of Salmonella?
4. List two symptoms of Salmonella poisoning.
2. Bad food hygiene
3. Vaccinate poultry/chickens
4. Fever, cramps, vomiting, diarrhoea
1. What type of pathogen causes Gonorrhoea?
2. What are the two common symptoms of gonorrhoea?
3. How is gonorrhoea spread?
4. List two ways that gonorrhoea is controlled.
2. Discharge from penis or vagina/pain when urinating
3. Sexual contact
4. Antibiotics / barrier method contraception
1. TMV is a pathogen that can affect plants. What does TMV stand for?
2. What does a plant infected by TMV look like?
3. How does TMV affect plant growth?
1. Tobacco Mosaic Virus
2. Mosaic pattern of discolouration on the leaves
3. Reduces photosynthesis (because leaves damaged)
1. What pathogen causes Rose Black Spot disease?
2. How is this pathogen spread?
3. What are the signs that a plant is suffering from Rose Black Spot disease?
4. How is Rose Black Spot treated?
5. How does Rose Black Spot affect plant growth?
2. Water or wind
3. Purple/Black spots on the leaves with leaves turning yellow and falling off.
4. Fungicides and removing affected leaves
5. Reduces photosynthesis
State how the following parts of the body defend us against pathogens:
a) Skin: acts as a barrier / secretes antimicrobial oils
b) Nose: Hairs to trap microbes
c) Trachea and Bronchi: Mucus to trap microbes/cilia to get rid of mucus and microbes
d) Stomach: Contains hydrochloric acid to kill microbes
What three things do white blood cells do to protect us against disease?
• Phagocytosis (engulfs the pathogen)
• Produces antibodies
• Produces antitoxins
Explain how a vaccine works
• Dead or inactive pathogen injected into a person
• White blood cell produces antibodies to match the antigen to the pathogen
• White blood cells remember the antibody so they can be produced rapidly if the pathogen enters the body again.
What are antibiotics used to treat?
What is the name of the first antibiotic to be discovered by Alexander Fleming?
What drugs are prescribed to treat the symptoms of a disease?
Why is it difficult to make drugs to kill viruses?
Viruses replicate inside our body cells – it’s difficult to make a drug to kill a virus without damaging our own body cells.
What three things should drugs be tested for?
Where are most drugs originally derived from?
Name the drugs that originate from the following plants:
a) Digitalis from foxgloves
b) Aspirin from willow
Why is antibiotic resistance a problem?
• Some bacteria have become resistant to antibiotics.
• These bacteria are very difficult to kill
What is a placebo?
A pill or injection that does not contain drugs
List the stages in pre-clinical trials.
• Computer models
• Tests on cells and tissues
• Tests on live animals
What is a double-blind trial?
A trial in which neither the doctor nor the patient knows who has been given the drug and who has been given the placebo.
List the stages of a clinical trial.
• Very low doses of the drug are given to healthy volunteers.
• If the drug is found to be safe, further trials are carried out to find the optimum dose of the drug.
Before the results of drug tests are published, what must happen?
The results must be peer-reviewed.