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Flashcards in Topic 4 Deck (22)
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When does infant attachment take place?

Attachment becomes evident between 6 and 9 months


How can attachment be measured?

'the strange situation'


Why is early infant attachment important?

Early infant attachment is important in laying the foundation for the future formation of stable relationships


What are children with a secure attachment more likely to be like?

Infants that form secure attachments are more likely to
investigate their immediate environment helping the development of cognitive abilities.


What can influence a childs social competence?

different methods of control


What type of control usually leads to the greatest social competence?

Authoritative control generally results in greater social
competence than permissive control.


Why is non verbal communication important?

in the formation of relationships between individuals and how it can signal attitudes and emotions as well as acting as an aid to verbal communication.


What is verbal communication used for?

is used in the transmission of knowledge, development of culture and social evolution.


What is learning?

Learning is a change in behaviour as a result
of experience.


How can we learn through practice?

The repeated use of a motor skill results in a
motor pathway being established


What two ways can we learn human behaviour?

Human behaviour may be learned by observation and imitation.


What is reinforcement?

Reinforcement is when behaviour patterns that have positive consequences for the individual are likely to be repeated


What is shaping?

Shaping is the rewarding of behaviour that
approximates to the desired behaviour.


What is extinction?

Extinction happens when behaviour patterns are not rewarded and so are likely to disappear.


What type of learning are reinforcement, shaping and extinction?

trial and error.


What is generalization and give an example.

application of a response to a variety of closely related stimuli e.g. a child who has been bitten by a dog to fear all dogs (generalisation)


What is discrimination and give an example.

application of different responses to a variety of closely related stimuli e.g. a child who has been bitten only to fear large dogs (discrimination).


What is social facilitation?

Increased performance in competitive/audience situations


What is de-individuation?

Loss of personal identity in a group leading to
diminished restraints on behaviour


What is internalisation?

Internalisation is the changing of beliefs as a
result of persuasion.


What is identification?

Identification is the changing of beliefs to be like an admired influencing source.


What is de-individuation often used for?

De-individuation is often used to explain the anti-social behaviour of some groups which would not be shown by individuals from these groups on their own.