Topic 4 - Pathology of Soft Tissue Flashcards Preview

Pathophysiology for physiotherapy > Topic 4 - Pathology of Soft Tissue > Flashcards

Flashcards in Topic 4 - Pathology of Soft Tissue Deck (24):
1

Features of a muscle contusion

Hematoma from sudden heavy compressive force

2

Risk factors for myositis ossificans

High injury severity.
Following a rebleed.
Inappropriate Rx (heat, massage ect).
Thigh: effusion present, prone knee flexion <45

3

Clinical signs myositis ossificans

Increased morning pain, pain with activity.
Night pain.
Palpable lump.
Improvement cease, then deteriorates.

4

The difference between a strain and a sprain

Strain - muscular
Sprain - ligament

5

Which muscles have a higher injury risk?

Two joint muscles
eg. Rectus Femoris, Gastrocnemius, Hamstrings

6

Mild/1st degree muscle strain - Clinical presentation

Minor swelling/discomfort.
No/minimal loss of strength.
No/minimal movement restriction.
Few fibers torn.

7

Moderate/2nd degree muscle strain - Clinical presentation

Significant swelling/discomfort.
Pain on contraction.
Loss of strength.
Restriction of movement.
Significant (more than half) fibers torn.

8

Severe/3rd degree muscle strain - Clinical presentation

Complete tear of muscle.
Virtually complete loss of muscle function

9

Stage 1 of skeletal muscle healing

Inflammation.
Rupture and necrosis of myofibers.
Formation of haematoma.
Inflammatory cell reaction.

10

Stage 2 of skeletal muscle healing

Proliferation.
Phagocytosis of necrotised tissue.
Regeneration of myofibers and production of connective scar tissue.
Revascularisation by in-growth of capillaries.

11

Stage 3 of skeletal muscle healing

Maturation.
Maturation of regenerated myofibers.
Retraction and reorganisation of scar tissue,
Recovery of functional capacity of muscle.

12

Compartment Syndrome - Clinical Signs

Pain during activity, ceases with rest.

13

Compartment Syndrome - Pathology

Overuse/Exercise raises intracompartmental pressure.
Local tissue swells
Compartment tightens
Blood supply is decreased
Leads to further tissue swelling, repeats

14

Define DOMS

Muscle soreness that develops 24-48 hours after unaccustomed physical activity.

15

DOMS Etiology theories

Lactic acid, muscle spasm, torn tissue, Connective tissue, Enzyme efflux, Tissue fluid.

16

Define Tendinopathy

General descriptor for tendon pathology

17

Tendinosis pathology

Collagen degeneration - disarray and separation.
Increased cells and vascular space.
Neovascularization (blood vessels where there shouldn't be).
Increased mucoid ground substance
*ABSENT inflammatory cells*

18

Tendinosis Signs

Pain some time after exercise (next day.
Painful at rest, "warms up" with use, worsens in cool down.
Local tenderness and thickening.
possible swelling/crepitus

19

Define Tendinitis

Inflammation of the tendon itself.
Rarely proven, often used incorrectly instead of tendonosis

20

Paratendonitis pathology

Inflammation of the outer layer (paratenon).
Occurs where tendon rubs over bony prominence.
Infiltration of inflammatory cells.
Acute odema and hyperaemia.

21

Paratendonitis signs

Crepitis
Difficult to differentiate from tendinosis

22

Grade 1 ligament sprain

Stretched fibers but normal ROM on stressing ligament

23

Grade 2 ligament sprain

Considerable proportion of fibers torn.
Stressing of ligament reveals increased laxity, but definite end point.

24

Grade 3 ligament sprain

Complete tear of ligament.
Excessive joint laxity with NO end point.
(be wary as may be no pain)