Topic 4: The Cell Cycle, Mitosis, Meiosis Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > Topic 4: The Cell Cycle, Mitosis, Meiosis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Topic 4: The Cell Cycle, Mitosis, Meiosis Deck (36):
1

sex chromosomes

  • 23 
  • contain genes that determine sex

2

3

autosomal chromosomes

  • 1 - 22
  • contain genes for somatic characteristics
  • each autosomal chromosome pair is not identical but equivalent = homologous chromosome

4

Interphase: G1 phase

  • growth, metabolism
  • at end of G1, centrosomes replicate
  • note: in some cells that do not divide again once mature (example: remain in G1) - in these cells it is termed G0 phase
    • example: nerve + some muscle cells

5

Interphase: G1 phase

  • g______, m______
  • what replicates at end of G1?
  • note: in osome cells that do not divide again once mater - in these cells it is termed ______ phase. 

  • growth, metabolism
  • at end of G1, centrosomes replicate
  • note: in some cells that do not divide again once mature (example: remain in G1) - in these cells it is termed Go phase
    • example: nerve + some muscle cells

6

Interphase: S phase

  • chromosomes replicate, but are still present as chromatin (not individually visible)
  • ALWAYS occurs before division (mitosis and meiosis)
  • replicates are called sister chromatids

7

Interphase: S phase

  • replicates are called sister chromatids
    • ?
    • ?
      • kinetochore = ?

  • attached to each other at an area of DNA called the centromere
  • kinetochore proteins (produced during S phase) attach to each centromere to form the kinetochore ( = protein + DNA complex, 1/chromatid)
    • kinetochore = site of attachment of spindle microtubules

8

Interphase: G2 phase 

  • growth, metabolism
  • production of enzymes and other proteins needed for cell division 

9

kinetochore

site of attachment of spindle microtubules

10

kinetochore is composed of?

  • protein 
  • DNA complex
  • 1/chromatid

11

kinetochore proteins are produced during what phase?

S phase

12

mitotic phase

involves:

 

  • mitosis = division of nuclear material (chromosomes)
    • 4 phases, but continuous cycle
      •  PMAT
  • cytokinesis = division of cytoplasm

13

division of nuclear material 

mitosis

14

division of cytoplasm

cytokineses

15

mitotic phase

when mitotic phase ends:

  • mitosis & cytokinesis complete
  • daughter cell go into interphase (G1
  • cycle starts over

16

site of attachment of spindle microtubules

kinetochore

17

Somatic cell formation: mitosis

Prophase

  • chromosomes condense from chromatin form - become individually visible
  • nucleoli/nuclear envelope disappear
  • centrosomes move to either pole
  • microtubules form spindle apparatus (starting at centrosomes) + attach to kinetichore proteins (Called kinetochore microtubules) 
    • spindle moves chromosomes toward cell equator

18

Somatic cell formation: mitosis 

Prophase

chromosomes ________ (thicken, coil) from _______ form - become __________ _____

chromosomes condense (thicken, coil) from chromatin form - become individually visible

19

Somatic cell formation:

prophase

nucleoli/nuclear envelope _______

nucleoli/nuclear envelope disappear

20

Somatic cell formation: mitosis

Prophase

centrosomes ________________

centrosomes move to either pole

21

Somatic cell formation: mitosis

Prophase

  • kinetochore proteins (called ______________) 
  • spindle moves chromosomes to___________

  • called kinetochore microtubules
    • spindle moves chromosomes toward cell equator

22

Somatic cell formation

Metaphase

46 chromosomes line up on cell equator

23

Somatic cell formation

Anaphase

  • as the spindle microtubules shorten, the kinetochores are pulled away from each other - causing separation of centromeres, which results in separation of the chromatids
  • 46 chromatids migrate to each pole
  • cytokinesis (division of cytoplasm begins)

24

cytokinesis begins at what phase of mitosis?

anaphase

25

46 chromatids migrate to each pole occurs during what phase of mitosis?

anaphase

26

as spindle microtubules shorten, the kinetochores are pulled away from each other - causing separation of centromeres, which results in separation of the chromatids occurs during what phase of mitosis?

anaphase

27

46 chromosomes line up on cell equator occurs during what phase of mitosis?

metaphase

28

nucleoli/nuclear envelope dissapears during what phase of mitosis?

prophase

29

microtubules form spindle apparatus and attach to kinetochore proteins occurs during what phase of mitosis?

prophase

30

chromosomes condense from chromatin form - become individually visible refers to what phase of mitosis?

prophase

31

centrosomes move to either pole refers to what phase of mitosis?

prophase

32

somatic cell division: mitosis

Telophase

  • chromosomes uncoil to chromatin
  • nucleoli, nuclear envelope reappear
  • spindle disassembles
  • cytokinesis completes (or may end after telophase ends)

33

chromosomes uncoil to chromatin refers to what phase of mitosis?

telophase

34

 nucleoli, nuclear envelope reappear refers to what phase of mitosis?

telophase

35

spindle disassembles  refers to what phase of mitosis?

telophase

36

cytokiesis completes refers to what phase of mitosis?

telophase