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Flashcards in Topic 50 Deck (30)
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1

Acromegaly (etiology)

- a.k.a hyperpituitarism
- due to hyperfunction of eosinophils of frontal pituitary lobe
- increase in GH
- gigantism in childhood
- acromegaly in adulthood

2

Acromegaly (Symptoms)

- mandibular prognathism
- macroglossia
- macrocheilia
- swollen gingiva
- large ears, nose, and eyebrows
- hyperplasia of dental cement
- wide diasthema
- sialosis
- hirsutism
- dermal hyperpigmentation
- DM

3

Acromegaly (diagnosis)

- X-ray
- CT
- MRI

4

Acromegaly (therapy)

- surgery of pituitary gland
- irradiation
- administration of octreotid and bromocriptin
- cosmetic resection of mandible

5

Cushing's Syndrome (etiology)

- adrenocortical hyperfunction
- due to adenoma or carcinoma
- steroid treatment
- long term steroid treatment causes steroid collapse which should be considered during general anesthesia

6

Cushing's Syndrome (symptoms)

- fatty deposits (moon face, buffalo hump)
- weakness of skeletal muscles
- hypertension
- headaches
- subcutaneous hematomas
- DM
- impaired wound healing
- hirsutism on face
- osteoporosis
- hypertrophic gingiva
- swollen parotid glands
- hyperpigmented skin and mucosa
- flushed face (plump rosy cheeks)
- teleangiectasis
- fungal infections
- hemorrhagic tendencies

7

Cushing's Syndrome (diagnosis)

- CT
- MRI

8

Cushing's Syndrome (therapy)

- surgery
- hormone substitution

9

Hypothyroidism (etiology)

- thyroid gland hypofunction
* congenital: cretinism
* acquired: myxoedema

10

Hypothyroidism (symptoms)

- macroglossia
- macrocheilia
- dry red mucosa (mucopolysaccharide infiltration)
- difficult speech and eating
- swollen face
- dry yellowish skin (carotin deposits)
- mental retardation
- bradycardia
- sensitivity to cold or hypothermia
- predisposition to ischemic cardiac disease
- may be accompanied by chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis

11

Hypothyroidism (differential diagnosis)

- amyloidosis
- acromegaly

12

Hypothyroidism (therapy)

- hormone substitution (L-thyroxine)
- local and systemic antimycotic treatment

13

Hyperthyroidism (etiology)

- thyroid gland hyperfunction
- more common among women
- accompanying diseases:
* DM
* Myasthemia gravis
* Pernicious anemia

14

Hyperthyroidism (symptoms)

- goiter
- protruding eyes
- tachycardia
- loss of weight
- weakness
- sweating
- nervousness
- shaking
- diarrhea
- swelling of lymphatic gland
- osteoporosis
- disturbed mental states
- depression
- decrease sexual function
- vitiligo

15

Hyperthyroidism (oral symptoms)

- shaking and burning sensation of tongue
- early eruption of deciduous and permanent teeth
- osteoporosis may cause fracture of cheek bones
- swelling of gingiva

16

Hyperthyroidism (adverse effect of drugs)
antithyroid
antihypertension
tranquilizers

- agranulocytosis
- xerostomia
- candidiasis

17

Hyperthyroidism (differential diagnosis)

- thyroid tumors

18

Hyperthyroidism (therapy)

- thiocarbamide derivates
- carbimazole
- radioactive iodine therapy
- surgery

19

Hashimoto's Thyroiditis (etiology)

- autoimmune disorder
- most common form of thyroiditis

20

Hashimoto's Thyroiditis (symptoms)

- enlarged thyroid gland (not tender to touch)
- may evolve to myxoedema
- may produce symptoms of hyperthyroidism
- maybe accompanied by complcations of DM, Addison, pernicious anemia)

21

Hashimoto's Thyroiditis (differential diagnosis)

- thyroid tumors
- basedow disease
- goiter
- lymphoma

22

Hashimoto's Thyroiditis (therapy)

- L-thyroxin

23

Addison's Disease (etiology)

- Hypofunction or total dectruction
of the adrenal gland due to:
* tumors
* amyloidosis,
* haemorrhages,
* autoimmun origin
* infections
- decrease levels of adrenal hormones
- increased level of ACTH and MSH

24

Addison's Disease (symptoms)

- greyish-brown stained hyperpigmentation of the skin, mucosa
(bucca, tongue, gingiva, lips)
- lassitude
- anorexia
- nausea
- diarrhea
- anaemia
- cachexia
- orthostatic hypotension
- shock
- hypoglycemia
- hyponatremia
- hypercalcemia
- vitiligo
-aphtous ulcers

25

Addison's Disease (differential diagnosis)

- racial hyperpigmentation
- melanoplakia
- malignant
melanoma
- Peutz-Jeghers sy.

26

Addison's Disease (therapy)

- glucocorticoid
- mineralocorticoid
- hormone substitution

27

Diabetes Mellitus (etiology)

- decreased insulin production
- metabolic disorder

28

Diabetes Mellitus (symptoms)

- dry skin
- xerostomia (dry mouth)
- glossodynia
- disorders of taste sensation
- angular cheilitis
- swollen parotid glands
- gingival anomalies
- itching of the gingiva
- medial rhomboid glossitis
- susceptibility to
ischemic cardiac disease,
hypoglicemic and diabetic coma
- lichen oris, lichenoid reactions

29

Diabetes Mellitus (differential diagnosis)

- candidiasis
- Sjögren’s sy.
- irradiation
- disorders of the
salivary gland

30

Diabetes Mellitus (Therapy)

- primarily internal medical treatment
- antimicotic drugs