Topic 6- Groups In The Periodic Table Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 6- Groups In The Periodic Table Deck (22):

Group 1 metals are also known as the...

Alkali metals


The alkali metals physical properties?

- Low melting points and boiling points (compared to other metals)
- Very soft


Alkali metals have similar chemical properties because...

This also means that they form... but not...

Because they all have one outer electron

They do form ionic compounds (they loose the single electron) but don’t form covalent bonds


Group one metals are ... reactive
Linked to electron configurations because...
Pattern of reactivity

Very reactive
Because there is only one electron on the outer shell which means that when metals react the outer electron is lost to make the atom stable (reactive)
The reactivity increase down the table because there are more shells to shield the electrostatic attraction reducing the pull (less attraction the further away from the nucleus) making it easier to loose the electron


When alkali metals are put in water they react...
The reaction produces...

React vigorously
Hydrogen gas and a hydroxide of the metal

Eg. Sodium + Water = Sodium hydroxide + Hydrogen


The reactivity with water ... down the table because...
Lithium reaction?
Sodium reaction?
Potassium reaction?
Rubidium and Caesium reaction?

Increase down the table because the outer electron gets lost more easily in the reaction
Lithium- move around the surface, fizzing furiously
Sodium- (same as lithium) and melt in the heat of the reaction
Lithium- (same as sodium) can get hot enough to ignite the hydrogen gas produced
Rubidium and Caesium- react violently and explode


Group 7 elements are also known as...
They have... chemical properties because...

The halogens
Similar chemical properties because they all have 7 electrons on the outer shell


As you go down group 7 the boiling points and melting points...
This means that at room temperature:


Chlorine... is a fairly reactive, poisonous, green gas
Bromine... is a poisonous, red-brown liquid, which gives off an orange vapour at room temperature
Iodine... is a dark grey crystalline solid which gives off a purple vapour when heated


To test for chlorine gas...

Use damp blue litmus paper over where the gas
Chlorine will bleach the paper turning it white


Reactivity... down group 7

Reactivity decreases
Because a halogen atom only needs to gain one electron to form a stable structure
The easier it is to attract an electron, the more reactive the halogen will be
So further down group 7 it’s harder to attract the extra electron because the outer shell is further away from the nucleus (weaker electrostatic attraction from the more shields)


The halogens will react vigorously with some metals to form...

Halogens also react with hydrogen to form...

Salts called metal halides

Hydrogen halides which are soluble and dissolve in water to form acidic solutions


The higher up in group 7, the... reactive

More reactive
Because they can attract the outer electron of the metal more easily


A displacement reaction is where...

A more reactive element displaces (pushes out) a less reactive element from a compound


The halogens displacement reactions are...

Radox reactions
As they gain electrons (reduction)

Whilst halide ions lose electrons (oxidation)


Chlorine displaces...

Bromine and iodine from salt solutions


Bromine displaces...

But NOT chlorine


Iodine displaces...

Can’t displace chlorine or bromine


When a halide is added to a halogen solution what indicates displacement?

Colour change


Group 0 are also called...

Noble gases


All nobles gases are...

Colourless gases at room temperature
Monatomic - made up of single atoms not molecules
Inert (more or less) which means they don’t react with much because they have a full shell outer electrons
Non flammable


Noble gases are used to provide an inert atmosphere...
Everyday uses:
Argon, krypton and xenon?
Argon and helium?

Argon- in filament lamps because it’s non flammable and stops very hot filament from burning away
Argon, krypton and xenon- to stop the flash filament in photography from burning up, during high temperature flashes
Argon and helium- protect metals when being welded, stops the hot metal reacting with oxygen
Helium- used in airships and party balloons, non flammable makes it safer to use than hydrogen gas and has a lower density than air (makes balloons float)


Boiling points and melting points... as you go down Group 0