# Topic 7 - Rates Of Reaction And Energy Changes Flashcards

1
Q

How do you work out the rate of reaction?

A

(Amount of reactant used or Amount of product formed) ÷ time

2
Q

Describe an investigation to find out how concentration affects the rate of reaction.

A
1. Add the first of the concentrations of sodium thiosulphate to the flask. Add 10cm3 of HCL and start the stopwatch
2. Watch the solution as it clouds over. Once the cross has disappeared stop the clock.
3. Record the time in a results table
4. Repeat the above steps for the other concentration of sodium thiosulphate. Repeat the experiment 3 times for each of the concentrations.
5. Record all results in a table and work out the average time for each.
6. Show the results in a graph and you should find that as the concentration gets stronger, the time take is shorter.
3
Q

Describe an investigation to find the effect of surface area on the rate of reaction.

A
1. Put dilute HCL into a conical flask and place marble chips inside
2. Immediately place a bung connected to a gas syringe onto the conical flask and take the first volume reading whilst starting the stop watch
3. Take readings at regular time intervals until the marble chips disappear and record the results in a table. You can also plot a graph
4. Repeat the experiment with the same volume and concentration of acid and exactly the same mass of the marble chips but the marble must be more crushed.
5. Then repeat with the same mass of marble but as powdered chalk.
4
Q

What does the rate of a chemical reaction depend on?(4)

A
• Temperature
• Concentration
• Pressure
• Surface area
5
Q

How does temperature increase the rate of reaction?

A

When the temperature is increased, the particles move faster. If they move faster, they’re going to have more collisions. Also, higher temperatures increase the energy of the collisions, since the particles are moving faster. This means that there will be more successful collisions as more particles will collide with enough energy to react.

6
Q

How does concentration affect the rate of reaction?

A

If a solution is made more concentrated, there are more particles of reactant in the same volume. This makes collision more likely, so the reaction rate increases.

7
Q

How does pressure affect the rate of reaction?

A

Increasing pressure means that the particle are more crowded. This means that the frequency between particles will increase therefore increasing the rate of reaction.

8
Q

How does surface area affect the rate of reaction?

A

Increasing the surface area means that the particles around it have more area to work on, so the frequency of collisions will increase. This means that the rate of reaction is faster for solids with a larger surface area to volume ratio.

9
Q

What is a catalyst?

A

A substance which increase the rate of reaction without being changed chemically or used up in the reaction. Also, it won’t change the products of the reaction. Catalysts are specific to a chemical reaction.

10
Q

How do catalysts work?

A

They decrease the activation energy needed for a reaction to occur. They do this by providing an alternative reaction pathway that has a lower activation energy. As a result, more of the particles have at least the minimum amount of energy needed for a reaction to occur when the particles collide.

11
Q

What are enzymes?

A

Biological catalysts. They speed up the chemical reactions in living cells.

12
Q

What can enzymes be used for?

A

Enzymes from yeast cells are used in the fermentation process which is used to make alcoholic drinks. They catalyse the reaction that converts sugars into Ethanol and Carbon Dioxide.

13
Q

What is an exothermic reaction?

A

A reaction which gives out energy to the surroundings, usually in the form of heat and usually shown by a rise in temperature.

14
Q

What is an endothermic reaction?

A

A reaction which takes in energy from the surroundings, usually in the form of heat and usually shown by a fall in temperature of the surroundings.

15
Q

How does a reaction profile show an exothermic reaction?

A
• The products are at a lower energy than the reactants

- The difference in height represents the energy given out in the reaction

16
Q

How does a reaction profile show if a reaction is endothermic?

A
• The products are at a higher energy than the reactants

- The difference in height represents energy being taken in during the reaction.

17
Q

What is the activation energy?

A

The minimum amount of energy needed for bonds to break and a reaction to start. On a reaction profile, it’s the energy difference between the reactants and the highest point on the curve.

18
Q

How do measure the temperature change when dissolving salts in water?

A

Add the salt to a polystyrene cup of water and measuring the change in temperature when the salt has dissolved.
Dissolving ammonium chloride decreases the temperature of the reaction mixture - its endothermic
Dissolving calcium chloride causes the temperature of the solution to rise- it’s exothermic

19
Q

How do you measure temperature change in a neutralisation reaction?

A

In a neutralisation reaction an acid and a base react to form a salt and water. Most neutralisation reactions are exothermic, e.g.
HCl + NaOH = NaCl +H2O. However, the neutralisation reaction between ethanoic acid and sodium carbonate is endothernic

20
Q

How do you measure temperature change in a displacement reaction?

A

In a displacement reaction, a more reactive element displaces less reactive element in a compound. These types of reactions are accompanied by a release of energy- they’re exothermic. Zinc powder and copper sulfate react in a displacement reaction forming zinc sulfate and copper.

21
Q

How do you measure temperature change in a precipitation reaction?

A

Precipitates are insoluble solids which can sometimes form when two solutions are mixed together. Precipitation reactions are exothermic. For example, the reaction between lead (ii) nitrate solution and potassium iodide forming a lead iodide precipitate would result in an increase in the temperature of the surroundings.

22
Q

What type of process is bond breaking?

A

Energy must be supplied to break the existing bonds so it is an endothermic process.

23
Q

What type of process is bond making?

A

Energy is released when new bonds are formed so it is a exothermic process.

24
Q

MEXO BENDO

A

Making Bonds is
EXOthermic
Breaking bonds is
ENDOthermic

25
Q

How do you calculate an overall energy change?

A

Energy required to break bonds - Energy released by forming bonds

26
Q

What does a positive energy change mean?

A

It is an endothermic reaction. Less heat energy is released in forming new bonds in the products than is required in breaking bonds in the reactants.

27
Q

What is a negative energy change?

A

It is a exothermic reaction. More heat energy is release in forming new bonds in the products than is required in breaking existing bonds in the reactants.

28
Q

How do you do a bond energy calculation?

A

1) Work out the energy required to break the original bonds in the reactants (LHS of eq)
2) Work out the energy released by forming the new bonds in the products (RHS in eq)
3) Work out overall change