Flashcards in Topic 9-Rocks Deck (56):
Substances that make up rocks.
The rigid outer layer of the earth that involve the crust and mantle
A very hot mixture of rocks and gases.
Elements found uncombined in the earths crust.
Shaped substances made up of atoms and molecules that are arranged in a highly ordered structure.
Appearance of an mineral caused by the way it reflects light.
A mark left by a mineral when it is scraped hard across a hard surface.
The measure of how difficult it is to scratch the surface of a solid material .
Matter that settles to the bottom of a liquid
Rocks that form from the cooling of lava and magna
Igneous rocks formed when lava cools above the earths surface
Pale rocks that form when frothy lava cools in the air
A dark igneous rock formed from gassy lava that cools quickly.
A material or substance that easily scratches another
Dark igneous rock with small crystals formed by the fast cooling of lava
A smooth black rock that looks like glass and is formed when lava cools almost instantly
Igneous rock that forms when magma cools below the earths surface
Intrusive rock mass that measures more than 100 kilometres across
Hard, igneous rock with different coloured crystals. It forms slowly below the earths surface
Rocks that are formed from the particles of sediments.
A rock formed from another rock that has been under great heat or pressure.
The wearing away of soil and rock by natural elements such as wind, waves, Rivers, ice and by human activity.
Flat, open land beside a river where sediments are deposited during floods
Large Bodies of ice that move down slopes and push boulders, rocks and gravel in front of them.
Deposit left by movement of a glacier.
A sedimentary rock with medium sized grains.
A fine - grained, sedimentary rock without layering
A fine - grained sedimentary rock formed from mud and clay which can be split easily.
A sedimentary rock with a partial size of that of sandstone and mudstone.
A sedimentary rock containing large practicals of various sizes cemented together
A sedimentary rock formed from the remains of sea organisms
A sedimentary rock formed from plants and animals
A sedimentary rock formed when a salt lake or seabed dries up. It's main chemical is sodium chloride.
The process that changes rocks by extreme pressure or heat. (Or both)
A fine - grained metamorphic rock formed as a result of moderate heat and pressure on shale
A metaphoric rock formed mainly as a result on granite
A type of rock that is mined to collect the minerals inside of it.
Extraction of natural resources from earth
Environmental impact statement
Study of the possible effects of a planed project on the environment
Restored to its previous condition
Waste rock removed from below the topsoil. The rock is replaced when the area is restored
Mining that takes place on the surface of land
Mining that takes place deep below the earths surface
The time begging over two million years ago during which early humans made implements of stone
A mixture of a metal with a non-metal or another metal
A fine-grained sedimentary rock which leaves a very sharp edge when broken
A process in which tool stones were struck with harder stones to shed large flakes that could be used to make small tools
Any remains or trace of an animal or plant. Evidence of life in the past.
A scientist who study's fossils
The buckling of rocks. It is caused when are under pressure from both sides.
The age of a rock compared with another rock.
A type of fungi
Fossils that provide evidence such as footprints that an organism was present when the rock was formed
A volcano that has not erupted in recorded history
Animals that eat over animals