Topic 9-Rocks Flashcards Preview

Science Year 8 > Topic 9-Rocks > Flashcards

Flashcards in Topic 9-Rocks Deck (56):
1

Minerals

Substances that make up rocks.

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Lithosphere

The rigid outer layer of the earth that involve the crust and mantle

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Magma

A very hot mixture of rocks and gases.

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Native elements

Elements found uncombined in the earths crust.

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Crystal

Shaped substances made up of atoms and molecules that are arranged in a highly ordered structure.

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Lustre

Appearance of an mineral caused by the way it reflects light.

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Streak

A mark left by a mineral when it is scraped hard across a hard surface.

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Hardness

The measure of how difficult it is to scratch the surface of a solid material .

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Sediments

Matter that settles to the bottom of a liquid

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Ingenious rocks

Rocks that form from the cooling of lava and magna

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Extrusive rocks

Igneous rocks formed when lava cools above the earths surface

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Pumice

Pale rocks that form when frothy lava cools in the air

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Scoria

A dark igneous rock formed from gassy lava that cools quickly.

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Abrasive

A material or substance that easily scratches another

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Basalt

Dark igneous rock with small crystals formed by the fast cooling of lava

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Obsidian

A smooth black rock that looks like glass and is formed when lava cools almost instantly

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Intrusive rocks

Igneous rock that forms when magma cools below the earths surface

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Batholiths

Intrusive rock mass that measures more than 100 kilometres across

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Granite

Hard, igneous rock with different coloured crystals. It forms slowly below the earths surface

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Sedimentary rocks

Rocks that are formed from the particles of sediments.

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Metamorphic rocks

A rock formed from another rock that has been under great heat or pressure.

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Erosion

The wearing away of soil and rock by natural elements such as wind, waves, Rivers, ice and by human activity.

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Floodplains

Flat, open land beside a river where sediments are deposited during floods

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Glaciers

Large Bodies of ice that move down slopes and push boulders, rocks and gravel in front of them.

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Moraines

Deposit left by movement of a glacier.

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Sandstone

A sedimentary rock with medium sized grains.

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Mudstone

A fine - grained, sedimentary rock without layering

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Shale

A fine - grained sedimentary rock formed from mud and clay which can be split easily.

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Siltstone

A sedimentary rock with a partial size of that of sandstone and mudstone.

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Conglomerate

A sedimentary rock containing large practicals of various sizes cemented together

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Limestone

A sedimentary rock formed from the remains of sea organisms

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Coal

A sedimentary rock formed from plants and animals

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Rock salt

A sedimentary rock formed when a salt lake or seabed dries up. It's main chemical is sodium chloride.

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Metamorphism

The process that changes rocks by extreme pressure or heat. (Or both)

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Slate

A fine - grained metamorphic rock formed as a result of moderate heat and pressure on shale

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Gneiss

A metaphoric rock formed mainly as a result on granite

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Mineral Ores

A type of rock that is mined to collect the minerals inside of it.

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Mining

Extraction of natural resources from earth

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Environmental impact statement

Study of the possible effects of a planed project on the environment

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Rehabilitated

Restored to its previous condition

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Overburden

Waste rock removed from below the topsoil. The rock is replaced when the area is restored

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Open-cut mining

Mining that takes place on the surface of land

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Underground mining

Mining that takes place deep below the earths surface

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Stone Age

The time begging over two million years ago during which early humans made implements of stone

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Alloy

A mixture of a metal with a non-metal or another metal

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Flint

A fine-grained sedimentary rock which leaves a very sharp edge when broken

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Percussion flaking

A process in which tool stones were struck with harder stones to shed large flakes that could be used to make small tools

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Fossil

Any remains or trace of an animal or plant. Evidence of life in the past.

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Palaeontologists

A scientist who study's fossils

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Folding

The buckling of rocks. It is caused when are under pressure from both sides.

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Relative age

The age of a rock compared with another rock.

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Mould

A type of fungi

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Trace fossils

Fossils that provide evidence such as footprints that an organism was present when the rock was formed

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Extinct

A volcano that has not erupted in recorded history

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Carnivores

Animals that eat over animals

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Scavengers

Animals that eat dead plant or animal material