Topics A50-52 Environmental Causes of Disease: Tobacco, Pollution, Alcohol, Radiation Flashcards Preview

Y Pathology I (Dustin) > Topics A50-52 Environmental Causes of Disease: Tobacco, Pollution, Alcohol, Radiation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Topics A50-52 Environmental Causes of Disease: Tobacco, Pollution, Alcohol, Radiation Deck (40)
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31

How do you rank the different degrees of burns?

Partial thickness: 1 and 2
-1st degree: only epidermis
-2nd degree: epidermis + superficial dermis. May have blisters.

Full thickness: 3 and 4
-3rd degree: extends through entire dermis. Stiff, white to brown. Painless at site of burn.
-4th degree: goes even deeper, appears black (eschar).

32

What are 3 major risks to life from burns / fires?

1. Hypovolemic shock: fluids move to interstitial area and much fluid is lost

2. Infection due to lost protection of skin (Pseudomonas especially)

3. Inhalation injury: life-threatening pulmonary edema often develops within 24-48 hours of exposure after being in burning building

33

What are the 3 types of hyperthermia?

1. Heat cramps: caused by electrolyte loss from sweating, usually occurs during exercise. Muscles cramp.

2. Heat exhaustion: most common type. Person collapses from hypovolemia due to sweating. Usually after fainting and rest, they recover fine

3. Heat stroke: life-threatening, uncompensated rise in core body temperature. High temperature with high humidity means sweating is ineffective and even stops. Have generalized peripheral vasodilation, arrhythmias, maybe DIC.

34

At around what hypothermic body temperature does loss of consciousness occur, along with what other serious symptoms of hypothermia?

Around or below 32C / 90F.

Als see bradycardia, atrial fibrillation.

35

What are the 2 mechanisms of injury for electrical injury?

1. Burns: require longer exposure to electrical source

2. Normal electrical impulses are disrupted: major risk is ventricular fibrillation, but can also paralyze respiratory muscles

36

What are the 3 forms of ionizing radiation?

1. X and γ rays: high frequency EM radiation. These are "indirectly" ionizing because they react with H2O first to make ROS. (α/β radiation is directly ionizing)

2. α particles: 2 protons and 2 neutrons, steal electrons to stabilize themselves. Most harmful one but it's easily blocked, has short range. Dangerous to ingest.

3. β particles: either high-energy electron or positron emission. Positrons can cause γ rays to be released.

37

Radiation definitions:
Grays
Sieverts

Grays: energy absorbed by target tissue. Joules/kg

Sieverts: "equivalent dose" - basically the energy absorbed multiplied by the relative biologic "effectiveness" of the radiation

38

Which tissues are most susceptible to mutagenic/carcinogenic effects of radiation?

Cells that divide rapidly:
Most sensitive is bone marrow. Most frequent ionizing radiation problems are acute or chronic myeloid leukemias

Next most affected are breast, lung, salivary glands

(Skin, bone, GI tract are not affected much)

39

What is the most important intracellular target of ionizing radiation? What are some ways that it can be damaged?

DNA

Can cause base damage, single and double-stranded breaks, and cross-links between DNA and proteins. Double-stranded break is most dangerous

40

Which type of non-ionizing radiation is dangerous? Why?

UV light, mostly in UVB spectrum <310nm. Causes thymidine dimers to form in DNA. Need nuclear excision repair

Melanoma is closely related to burning at young ages, before puberty.

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