Smelling ammonia is a function of which nerve
In MOCA testing, what score is considered normal?
> or = 26
CN III deficit with pupil sparing usually points to what usual cause
Usually vascular like diabetic ophthalmoplegia
If a patient presents with CN III deficit with pupil involvement, think
When the left sternocleidomastoid contracts, the head moves to the
Tongue deviates to which side in an lmn lesion?
Normal plantar (babinski) reflex
How do you do Hoffman reflex?
Finger flexor reflex: tap the nail of the third or fourth phalanx. A positive test (flexion of the terminal joint of the thumb) indicates an UMN lesion in the upper limb.
Optic nerve tests
Acuity, fields, pupil, fundoscopy
CN III supplies
Levator palpebrae superioris Medial rectus Superior rectus Inferior rectus Inferior oblique efferent limb of pupillary light response
Afferent arm of the corneal reflex is innervated by
Innervation of CN VII
Muscles of facial expression Hyperacusis (stapedius) Efferent corneal reflex Taste anterior 2/3 of the tongue Salivary and lacrimal glands
Tests for CN VIII
Nystagmus, caloric reflexes
Tests for CN IX and X
Palatal elevation, gag reflex, vocal cord function, swallowing, post 1/3 of tongue taste
Compnents of the motor exam
Abnormal movements (tremors, choreA, hemiballismus etc.)
Pronator drift (UMN lesions unable to maintain extension and supination)
Reflexes (DTRs, abdominal reflexes, primituve reflexes, Babinski, Hoffman, clonus)