First Aid USMLE 1 - Rapid Review Key Associations Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in First Aid USMLE 1 - Rapid Review Key Associations Deck (134)
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1
Q

Actinic (solar) keratosis

A

Precursor to squamous cell carcinoma

2
Q

Acute gastric ulcer associated with CNS injury

A

Cushing ulcer ( intracranial pressure stimulates vagal gastric secretion)

3
Q

Acute gastric ulcer associated with severe burns

A
Curling ulcer (greatly reduced plasma volume results in
sloughing of gastric mucosa)
4
Q

Alternating areas of transmural inflammation and normal

colon

A

Skip lesions (Crohn disease)

5
Q

Aneurysm, dissecting

A

Hypertension

6
Q

Aortic aneurysm, abdominal and descending aorta

A

Atherosclerosis

7
Q

Aortic aneurysm, arch

A

3° syphilis (syphilitic aortitis), vasa vasorum destruction

8
Q

Aortic aneurysm, ascending

A

Marfan syndrome (idiopathic cystic medial degeneration)

9
Q

Atrophy of the mammillary bodies

A
Wernicke encephalopathy (thiamine deficiency causing
ataxia, ophthalmoplegia, and confusion)
10
Q

Autosplenectomy (fibrosis and shrinkage)

A

Sickle cell anemia (hemoglobin S)

11
Q

Bacteria associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and stomach cancer

A

H. pylori

12
Q

Bacterial meningitis (adults and elderly)

A

Streptococcus pneumoniae

13
Q

Bacterial meningitis (newborns and kids)

A
Group B streptococcus/E.coli (newborns), S. pneumoniae/
Neisseria meningitidis (kids)
14
Q

Benign melanocytic nevus

A

Spitz nevus (most common in 1st two decades)

15
Q

Bleeding disorder with GpIb deficiency

A

Bernard-Soulier syndrome (defect in platelet adhesion to vonWillebrand factor)

16
Q

Brain tumor (adults)

A

Supratentorial: metastasis > astrocytoma (including

glioblastoma multiforme) > meningioma > schwannoma

17
Q

Brain tumor (kids)

A

Infratentorial: medulloblastoma (cerebellum) or
supratentorial: craniopharyngioma

18
Q

Breast cancer

A

Infiltrating ductal carcinoma

19
Q

Breast mass

A

Fibrocystic change, carcinoma (in postmenopausal

women)

20
Q

Breast tumor (benign)

A

Fibroadenoma

21
Q

Cardiac 1° tumor (kids)

A

Rhabdomyoma, often seen in tuberous sclerosis

22
Q

Cardiac manifestation of lupus

A

Libman-Sacks endocarditis (nonbacterial, affecting both sides of mitral valve)

23
Q

Cardiac tumor (adults)

A

Metastasis, 1° myxoma (4:1 left to right atrium; “ball and

valve”)

24
Q

Cerebellar tonsillar herniation

A

Chiari II malformation

25
Q

Chronic arrhythmia

A

Atrial fibrillation (associated with high risk of emboli)

26
Q

Chronic atrophic gastritis (autoimmune)

A

Predisposition to gastric carcinoma (can also cause pernicious anemia)

27
Q

Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina

A

DES exposure in utero

28
Q

Compression fracture

A

Osteoporosis (type I: postmenopausal woman; type II: elderly man or woman)

29
Q

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, hypotension

A

21-hydroxylase deficiency

30
Q

Congenital cardiac anomaly

A

VSD

31
Q

Congenital conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (black liver)

A

Dubin-Johnson syndrome (inability of hepatocytes to secrete conjugated bilirubin into bile)

32
Q

Constrictive pericarditis

A

TB (developing world); SLE (developed world)

33
Q

Coronary artery involved in thrombosis

A

LAD > RCA > LCA

34
Q

Cretinism

A

Iodine deficit/hypothyroidism

35
Q

Cushing syndrome

A

Iatrogenic Cushing (from corticosteroid therapy)
Adrenocortical adenoma (secretes excess cortisol)
ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma
Paraneoplastic Cushing (due to ACTH secretion by
tumors)

36
Q

Cyanosis (early; less common)

A

Tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of great vessels, truncus

arteriosus

37
Q

Cyanosis (late; more common)

A

VSD, ASD, PDA

38
Q

Death in CML

A

Blast crisis

39
Q

Death in SLE

A

Lupus nephropathy

40
Q

Dementia

A

Alzheimer disease, multiple infarcts

41
Q

Demyelinating disease in young women

A

Multiple sclerosis

42
Q

DIC

A

Severe sepsis, obstetric complications, cancer, burns, trauma, major surgery

43
Q

Dietary deficit

A

Iron

44
Q

Diverticulum in pharynx

A

Zenker diverticulum (diagnosed by barium swallow)

45
Q

Ejection click

A

Aortic/pulmonic stenosis

46
Q

Esophageal cancer

A

Squamous cell carcinoma (worldwide); adenocarcinoma (U.S.)

47
Q

Food poisoning (exotoxin mediated)

A

S. aureus, B. cereus

48
Q

Glomerulonephritis (adults)

A

Berger disease (IgA nephropathy)

49
Q

Gynecologic malignancy

A
Endometrial carcinoma (most common in U.S.); cervical
carcinoma (most common worldwide)
50
Q

Heart murmur, congenital

A

Mitral valve prolapse

51
Q

Heart valve in bacterial endocarditis

A

Mitral > aortic (rheumatic fever), tricuspid (IV drug

abuse)

52
Q

Helminth infection (U.S.)

A

Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides

53
Q

Hematoma—epidural

A

Rupture of middle meningeal artery (trauma; lentiform

shaped)

54
Q

Hematoma—subdural

A

Rupture of bridging veins (crescent shaped)

55
Q

Hemochromatosis

A

Multiple blood transfusions or hereditary HFE mutation
(can result in CHF, “bronze diabetes,” and  risk of
hepatocellular carcinoma)

56
Q

Hepatocellular carcinoma

A
Cirrhotic liver (associated with hepatitis B and C and with
alcoholism)
57
Q

Hereditary bleeding disorder

A

von Willebrand disease

58
Q

Hereditary harmless jaundice

A
Gilbert syndrome (benign congenital unconjugated
hyperbilirubinemia)
59
Q

HLA-B27

A

Ankylosing spondylitis, reactive arthritis, ulcerative colitis,
psoriatic arthritis

60
Q

HLA-DR3 or -DR4

A

Diabetes mellitus type 1, rheumatoid arthritis, SLE

61
Q

Holosystolic murmur

A

VSD, tricuspid regurgitation, mitral regurgitation

62
Q

Hypercoagulability, endothelial damage, blood stasis

A

Virchow triad (results in venous thrombosis)

63
Q

Hypertension, 2°

A

Renal disease

64
Q

Hypoparathyroidism

A

Accidental excision during thyroidectomy

65
Q

Hypopituitarism

A

Pituitary adenoma (usually benign tumor)

66
Q

Infection 2° to blood transfusion

A

Hepatitis C

67
Q

Infections in chronic granulomatous disease

A

Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, Aspergillus (catalase )

68
Q

Intellectual disability

A

Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome

69
Q

Kidney stones

A

Calcium = radiopaque
Struvite (ammonium) = radiopaque (formed by urease 
organisms such as Proteus vulgaris or Staphylococcus)
Uric acid = radiolucent

70
Q

Late cyanotic shunt (uncorrected left to right becomes right to left)

A
Eisenmenger syndrome (caused by ASD, VSD, PDA; results
in pulmonary hypertension/polycythemia)
71
Q

Liver disease

A

Alcoholic cirrhosis

72
Q

Lysosomal storage disease

A

Gaucher disease

73
Q

Male cancer

A

Prostatic carcinoma

74
Q

Malignancy associated with noninfectious fever

A

Hodgkin lymphoma

75
Q

Malignancy (kids)

A

ALL, medulloblastoma (cerebellum)

76
Q

Metastases to bone

A

Prostate, breast > lung > thyroid

77
Q

Metastases to brain

A

Lung > breast > genitourinary > melanoma > GI

78
Q

Metastases to liver

A

Colon&raquo_space; stomach, pancreas

79
Q

Mitochondrial inheritance

A

Disease occurs in both males and females, inherited through females only

80
Q

Mitral valve stenosis

A

Rheumatic heart disease

81
Q

Mixed (UMN and LMN) motor neuron disease

A

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

82
Q

Myocarditis

A

Coxsackie B

83
Q

Nephrotic syndrome (adults)

A

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

84
Q

Nephrotic syndrome (kids)

A

Minimal change disease

85
Q

Neuron migration failure

A
Kallmann syndrome (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and
anosmia)
86
Q

Nosocomial pneumonia

A

Klebsiella, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa

87
Q

Obstruction of male urinary tract

A

BPH

88
Q

Opening snap

A

Mitral stenosis

89
Q

Opportunistic infection in AIDS

A

Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia

90
Q

Osteomyelitis

A

S. aureus

91
Q

Osteomyelitis in sickle cell disease

A

Salmonella

92
Q

Osteomyelitis with IV drug use

A

Pseudomonas, S. aureus

93
Q

Ovarian metastasis from gastric carcinoma or breast cancer

A

Krukenberg tumor (mucin-secreting signet-ring cells)

94
Q

Ovarian tumor (benign, bilateral)

A

Serous cystadenoma

95
Q

Ovarian tumor (malignant)

A

Serous cystadenocarcinoma

96
Q

Pancreatitis (acute)

A

Gallstones, alcohol

97
Q

Pancreatitis (chronic)

A

Alcohol (adults), cystic fibrosis (kids)

98
Q

Patient with ALL /CLL /AML /CML

A

ALL: child,
CLL: adult > 60
AML: adult ∼ 65
CML: adult 30–60

99
Q

Pelvic inflammatory disease

A

Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae

100
Q

Philadelphia chromosome t(9;22) (bcr-abl)

A

CML (may sometimes be associated with ALL/AML)

101
Q

Pituitary tumor

A

Prolactinoma, somatotropic “acidophilic” adenoma

102
Q

1° amenorrhea

A

Turner syndrome (45,XO)

103
Q

1° bone tumor (adults)

A

Multiple myeloma

104
Q

1° hyperaldosteronism

A

Adenoma of adrenal cortex

105
Q

1° hyperparathyroidism

A

Adenomas, hyperplasia, carcinoma

106
Q

1° liver cancer

A
Hepatocellular carcinoma (chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis,
hemochromatosis, a1-antitrypsin deficiency)
107
Q

Pulmonary hypertension

A

COPD

108
Q

Recurrent inflammation/thrombosis of small/medium vessels

in extremities

A

Buerger disease (strongly associated with tobacco)

109
Q

Renal tumor

A

Renal cell carcinoma: associated with von Hippel-Lindau and cigarette smoking; paraneoplastic syndromes (EPO, renin, PTH, ACTH)

110
Q

Right heart failure due to a pulmonary cause

A

Cor pulmonale

111
Q

S3 (protodiastolic gallop)

A

increased ventricular filling (left-to-right shunt, mitral regurgitation,
LV failure [CHF])

112
Q

S4 (presystolic gallop)

A

Stiff/hypertrophic ventricle (aortic stenosis, restrictive

cardiomyopathy)

113
Q

2° hyperparathyroidism

A

Hypocalcemia of chronic kidney disease

114
Q

Sexually transmitted disease

A

Chlamydia (usually coinfected with gonorrhea)

115
Q

SIADH

A

Small cell carcinoma of the lung

116
Q

Site of diverticula

A

Sigmoid colon

117
Q

Sites of atherosclerosis

A

Abdominal aorta > coronary artery > popliteal artery

> carotid artery

118
Q

Stomach cancer

A

Adenocarcinoma

119
Q

Stomach ulcerations and high gastrin levels

A

Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (gastrinoma of duodenum or

pancreas)

120
Q

t(14;18)

A

Follicular lymphomas (bcl-2 activation)

121
Q

t(8;14)

A

Burkitt lymphoma (c-myc activation)

122
Q

t(9;22)

A

Philadelphia chromosome, CML (bcr-abl fusion)

123
Q

Temporal arteritis

A

Risk of ipsilateral blindness due to thrombosis of ophthalmic
artery; polymyalgia rheumatica

124
Q

Testicular tumor

A

Seminoma (malignant, radiosensitive)

125
Q

Thyroid cancer

A

Papillary carcinoma

126
Q

Tumor in women

A

Leiomyoma (estrogen dependent, not precancerous)

127
Q

Tumor of infancy

A

Hemangioma (usually regresses spontaneously by childhood)

128
Q

Tumor of the adrenal medulla (adults)

A

Pheochromocytoma (usually benign)

129
Q

Tumor of the adrenal medulla (kids)

A

Neuroblastoma (malignant)

130
Q

Type of Hodgkin

A
Nodular sclerosis (vs. mixed cellularity, lymphocytic
predominance, lymphocytic depletion)
131
Q

Type of non-Hodgkin

A

Diffuse large cell

132
Q

UTI

A

E. coli, Staphylococcus saprophyticus (young women)

133
Q

Viral encephalitis affecting temporal lobe

A

HSV-1

134
Q

Vitamin deficiency (U.S.)

A

Folate (pregnant women are at high risk; body stores only 3- to 4-month supply; prevents neural tube defects)