Toxic plant principles - Alkaloids Flashcards Preview

Final toxico KP > Toxic plant principles - Alkaloids > Flashcards

Flashcards in Toxic plant principles - Alkaloids Deck (35)
Loading flashcards...
1

Tropane MOA

? Mechanical damage

- atropine, hyoscie, hyoscyamine

2

Tropane plants (3)

Thornapple, Devils trumpet, angels trumpet

3

Indolizidine alkaloid CS

"Locoism" - neuronogical signs 

 

wasting signs

4

Solanine / Solanidine plant

Nightshade

5

Colchine MOA

antimitotic/mutagenic - againt rapidly dividing cells

6

Colchicine CS

multisystemic - many organ systems

GI, CVS, Respiratory, renal, hepatic, CNS

7

Pyrrolizidine plants

Crotolaria (left), senecio, groundsel, ragwort (right)

8

Muscarine plant

Poisonous mushroom

9

Solanine / Solanidine MOA

GI, CNS, Respiratory, Cardiac

*like atropine (muscarinic antagonist - block vagal tone)

10

Lycorine plants (2)

Narcissus (daffodil), Amaryllis (lily)

11

Diterpene alkaloids plants (2 - family)

Buttercup family

Larkspur (left 2), Monkshood (right)

12

Colchicine plants (3)

Autumn crocus, meadow saffron, lily (pictured)

13

Xanthine MOA

Blocking adenosine receptors (inhibitory neurotranmitter) = stimulation of CNS

Inhibit phosphodiesterase (increases cAMP and Ca sequestration -> catecholamine release)

 

-caffeine, theophylline, theobromine

14

Xanthine CS

GI, Cardiac, CNS stimulation, Respiratory stimulation

15

Ergot alkalosis - MOA

vasoconstriction, gangrene, uterine contraction

Acute - CNS sgns (uncommon)

16

Muscarine MOA

agonis muscarinic cholinergic receptors 

CNS stimulation

17

Pyrrolizidine MOA

hepetotoxic = photosensitization, encephalopathy

18

pyridine MOA

@ nicotinic receptors at autonomic ganglia, neuromuscular junction, and CNS

19

Lycorine CS

GI, Hypotension

20

Piperidine plants (3)

Tobacco, Hemlock, Lupine

21

Muscarine treatment

atropine

22

Taxine MOA

cardiotoxic and GI

*like digitalis (+ inotrope - inhibits Na/K channels, increases intracelluar Ca)

23

Ergot alkalosis plant(?)

Ergot fungus

24

Lycorine MOA

BULB!

Emetic and purgative

25

Piperidine CS

ataxia, incoordination, birth defects

26

Diterpene alkaloids CS

Cattle - sudden death

M. weakness, stiff, staggering, bloat

Monkshood - cardiac arrhythmias

27

Diterpene alkaloids MOA

competitive blockade of nicoinic receptors at muscle endplate

28

Pyridine CS

excitation then blockade

death via respiratory faiulre

29

Diterpene alkaloids antidote

Physostigmine > neostigmine

30

Pyridine plant

Lobelia

31

Indolizidine alkaloid plants (2)

Locoweed (pictured), Milkvetch

32

Xanthine plants (2)

Cocoa, Coffee

33

Piperidine MOA

nicotinic effects

1˚ - ganglionic and neuromuscular stimulaiton

2˚ - ganglionic and neuromuscular blockade

birth defects - decreases fetal movement

34

Taxine plants

Yew - Taxus spp.

35

Indolizidine alkaloid MOA

decreased lysosomal enzymes = altered cellular function

 

*Also contains nitropropanol glycoside and selenium