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Ther 201 LE 3 > Toxicology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Toxicology Deck (44):
1

study of adverse effects of chemical, physical and biological agents

toxicology

2

ability of the substance to cause injury

toxicity

3

agent that is capable of producing deleterious effects in a biological system, seriously injuring function or producing death

poison

4

"ward" version of poison

toxicant

5

naturally occurring (plant/animal derived, endogenous to the organism)

toxins

6

synthetically manufactured poisons

xenobiotics

7

clinical state; overdose of drugs, medicaments, chemicals and biological substances

poisoning

8

mechanisms of actions of chemicals in their toxic states

toxicodynamics

9

adsorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion characteristics of substances in their toxic states

toxicokinetics

10

involves toxicity testing of
chemicals, providing information for safety evaluation,
regulatory requirements (for example: chemical profile,
activity, how substances behave in different media)

descriptive toxicology

11

concerns with identifying and
understanding mechanisms of action by which chemicals
exert toxic effects on living organisms, guide us on
treatment

Mechanistic Toxicology

12

involves in decisions,
guidelines, and policies, on the basis of data provided by
descriptive and mechanistic toxicology, whether a
chemical poses a sufficiently low risk to be marketed for
a stated purpose (for example: tolerability, special
licenses to prescribe)

regulatory toxicology

13

concerns with diseases caused by
or uniquely associated with toxic substances

Clinical Toxicology

14

Clinical Toxicology plus Forensic
Pathology – concerns primarily with the medicolegal
aspects of the harmful effects of chemicals on humans
and animals. Does not only deal with toxicological cases
where the patient is already dead. (for example: collect
specimen and date for evidence)

Forensic Toxicology

15

focuses on the impacts of
chemical pollutants in the environment on biological
organisms

Environmental toxicology

16

study of the adverse effects
of agents that may be encountered by workers during the
course of their employment

Occupational Toxicology

17

Factors affecting Responses to Toxic Agents

Agent
Envrionment
Individual Factors

18

potential that injury will occur in a given situation

Risk

19

intrinsic characteristic to cause harm to a
biological material

Toxicity

20

amount of chemical that is available for
absorption.

Exposure

21

explain R=TE

since toxicity of the substance is innate and constant, increase in exposure will cause increase in risk

22

examples of Factors under "AGENT"

Chemical and Physical Properties of Substances
1. physical state
2. solubility
3. vapor pressure
4. vapor density
5. reactivity

23

Physical State of substance: indications

liquid and gas are more easily absorbed in systemic circulation; more toxic

24

Solubility of substance: indications

Lipophilic material & unionized
substances (easily absorbed)
>>> more dangerous

25

Vapor pressure: indication

>=1 mmHg, rapid volitzation, can travel faster, more reach

26

Vapor density: indication

>1 - heavier than air - toxic substance will sink

27

Reactivity: indications

Converted to a more toxic
metabolite/compound

Charged particles and reactive
oxygen species are more
deleterious.

28

Talks about the Exposure Situation

Environment

29

Factors under "ENVIRONMENT"

Duration
Frequency
Route
dosage

30

Types/variations of duration

Acute Exposure
Subacute Exposure
Subchronic Exposure
Chronic Exposure

31

exposure of substances with inhalational route

acute

32

exposure of substances with oral route (usually)

subacute

33

exposure which can result in cancer and transgenerational effects (i.e. endocrine)

chronic

34

frequency of exposure is critical to ____

concentration levels of the substance in
biological fluids at target sites

35

Order of effectiveness toxicity of different routes

Parenteral (Bioavailability= 100) > Inhalational >
Intraperitoneal > Intramuscular > Subcutaneous > Intradermal
> Oral and Dermal

36

most critical factor in determining whether the intrinsic
potential of a substance will be expressed

Dosage

37

example of agents which may trigger
transformation with one single exposure

Carcinogens, genotoxic agents

38

examples of drugs which may not establish a dose-response relationship

Endocrine disruptors

39

only a small amount (1 pg) of _____ can cause cancer

dioxin

40

Examples of Individual Factors

Age
sex
genetic background
nutritional status
general health status

41

paracetamol overdose leads to

liver problems

42

isoniazid overdose leads to

inhibition of GABA synthesis -> seizures and B6 deficiency

43

T/F The toxic action of a drug is an exaggeration of its therapeutic action

F; not necessarily;
Some chemicals do not just exaggerate their actions
in toxic states, they completely change their behavior

44

example of a toxicant which may exert several mechanisms of toxic
actions

lead
->breaks down sulfhydryl molecules of myelin sheaths -> neuropathy
-> interferes with hemoglobin production by enzyme inhibition