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Sports Studies Unit 2- Health, fitness and training > Training > Flashcards

Flashcards in Training Deck (49):

what are the five principles of training?

- specificity
- progression
- overload
- reversibility
- tedium


what is specificity?

training must focus on specific types of activity to improve:
- the type of fitness needed
- particular muscle groups
training may need to be adapted for the individual


what is progression?

happens when the body adapts to the training and moves to a new level of fitness. Progress is achieved through an increase in intensity leading to overload.
- most progression is made early on
- at higher fitness levels, there is less progress
- a plateau may occur when higher levels of fitness are hard to reach


what is overload?

occurs when level of training is raised to a level higher than normal. Your body adapts to these extreme demands.


what is reversibility?

training effects are reversible. If training intensity is reduced or stopped, there can be deterioration of speed, strength and agility. Muscle 'atrophy' (loss of muscle tone) may occur.


what is tedium?

tedium is boredom. Signs of boredom are an important indicator that training needs to be more interesting and useful.


what are the four principles of overload?

- frequency
- intensity
- time
- type


what is overtraining?

excessive exercise that gives the body more work or stress than it can handle


what are the dangers of overtraining?

- overuse injury (results from repeating the same exercise or activity (eg. tennis elbow))
- fatigue


what are the 6 different types of training method?

- continuous training
- weight training
- fartlek training
- plyometric training
- circuit training
- high-intensity interval training


what is continuous training?

- consists of continuos activities
- no rest intervals
- can be performed at low, moderate or high intensities
- max heart rate between 60 and 80%
- e.g. running, swimming, cycling, rowing


what is the main aim of continuous training?

cardiovascular fitness


what are the advantages of continuous training?

- does not require much equipment if any
- good for aerobic exercise
- burns fat


what are the disadvantages of continuous training?

- no anaerobic fitness
- requires motivation


what is weight training?

- involves using free weights, kettle bells, resistance weights
- repetitions are the number of times the weights are lifted
- sets are the number of times a weight activity is carried out


what are the main aims of weight training?

- muscular endurance
- power
- speed
- strength


what are the advantages of weight training?

- improves muscular strength
- easy to show progression
- muscle size and power increased


what are the disadvantages of weight training?

- can be expensive (gym fees, equipment cost)
- prone to injuries
- specialist equipment may be needed


what is fartlek training?

- involves fast and slow activity over a variety of terrain or hills (running, cycling etc.)
- uses the borg scale for intensity


what are the main aims of fartlek training?

- aerobic endurance
- anaerobic fitness


what are the advantages of fartlek training?

- easily adapted for different sports and fitness levels
- good for sports that have a change of pace


what are the disadvantages of fartlek training?

- difficult to monitor effort
- easy to avoid challenging parts


what is plyometric training?

- eccentric muscle movement
- exercises which exert maximum force in short intervals of time
- e.g. squat jumps, box jumps


what are the main aims of plyometric training?

- power
- explosive strength


what are the advantages of plyometric training?

- over a time a greater force is created when muscle contracts
- provides more energy
- provides fast powerful movement


what are the disadvantages of plyometric training?

- high amount of stress on specific muscles
- no benefit to aerobic fitness


what is circuit training?

- complete exercises for different muscle groups at different stations
- exercise over time or repetition
- the muscle groups should be on alternate stations
- useful for sports teams


what are the main aims of circuit training?

- anaerobic fitness
- strength
- muscular endurance
- cardiovascular endurance
- speed


what are the advantages of circuit training?

- varied, so doesn't get boring
- easily adapted
- can include skill stations
- doesn't need lots of room or equipment


what are the disadvantages of circuit training?

- requires time to set up


what is interval training?

- involves periods of intense work followed by rest periods
- can be short or long intervals
- allows rest time to remove waste- lactic acid, co2


what are the main aims of interval training?

- speed
- muscular endurance
- anaerobic fitness


what are the advantages of interval training?

- benefits game players
- combines aerobic and anaerobic exercise
- can be adapted for activities and fitness levels
- specialist equipment not required


what are the disadvantages of interval training?

- can become boring
- needs to include a rest period


what is high altitude training?

specialised training at over 5000ft above sea level to help the body improve the production of red blood cells


what are the benefits of high altitude training?

- it increases your VO2 max, which improves your endurance and athletic performance
- air is less dense and oxygen levels are lower, so each breath delivers less of what working muscles require. To compensate, the body produces more red blood cells to help carry oxygen to the muscles. This leads to an increase in the body's oxygen carrying capacity
- the adaptation of increased blood cells will last about 2-3 months when athletes return to sea level


what are the disadvantages of high altitude training?

- training at a high altitude places more stress on the body
- it is not possible to train as intensively as at lower altitudes. This can lead to overtraining
- it can also have a negative effect on the immune system
- there can be loss of muscle mass because the body is using up energy reserves in the muscles
- some people experience dizziness or nausea and can't complete their training
- many people don't have access to high altitude locations


what are the benefits of training in a consistently good/warm climate?

- athletes can train consistently in good conditions
- psychological benefits as mood is lifted from the sun
- other pressures they have at home may be removed, such as media intrusion
- the risk of injury can be reduced as muscles are warmer


what does physiological mean?

to do with the body; physical activities that get the body ready for exercise or wind-down afterwards


what does psychological mean?

to do with the mind; activities that stimulate the mind and help the performer prepare mentally for exercise/competition or to relax afterwards


what are the physiological benefits of a warm-up?

- raises the body temperature and heart rate
- increases blood flow (oxygen supply) to the muscles
- stretches the muscles preparing them for action
- gets joints moving and increases the range of movement
- help avoid sprains and strains
- gives practice of skills and techniques to be used in the session/game


what are the psychological benefits of a warm-up?

- focuses the mind on the exercise
- helps prepare mentally for competition
- part of the build-up to 'match readiness'


what are the physiological benefits of a cool-down?

- helps reduce the oxygen debt and clear any lactic acid in the muscles
- allows heart rate and blood flow to reduce gradually to normal levels
- gentle stretching reduces muscle soreness and stiffness later
- reduces risk of injury


what are the psychological benefits of a cool-down?

- gives time for performer to calm down
- helps transition to less physical daily activities
- offers a chance to reflect on performance


what are the main three-phases to a warm-up?

1. pulse raiser
2. dynamic stretches
3. skill familiarisation


what should a pulse raiser do?

increase your heart rate e.g. running


what should dynamic stretches do?

engage the muscles to increase flexibility/ prevent injury e.g. lunges, heel flicks


what should skill familiarisation do?

imitate actions/ performance of sport e.g. dribbling in basketball


what will a typical cool down involve?

- 5-10 minutes of light jogging/walking- to decreased body temperature and remove waste products from the working muscles
- 5-10 minutes static stretching to help muscles relax and reestablish their normal range of movement
- breathing exercises- to aid relaxation and transition back to daily life