Flashcards in Training Deck (49)
what are the five principles of training?
what is specificity?
training must focus on specific types of activity to improve:
- the type of fitness needed
- particular muscle groups
training may need to be adapted for the individual
what is progression?
happens when the body adapts to the training and moves to a new level of fitness. Progress is achieved through an increase in intensity leading to overload.
- most progression is made early on
- at higher fitness levels, there is less progress
- a plateau may occur when higher levels of fitness are hard to reach
what is overload?
occurs when level of training is raised to a level higher than normal. Your body adapts to these extreme demands.
what is reversibility?
training effects are reversible. If training intensity is reduced or stopped, there can be deterioration of speed, strength and agility. Muscle 'atrophy' (loss of muscle tone) may occur.
what is tedium?
tedium is boredom. Signs of boredom are an important indicator that training needs to be more interesting and useful.
what are the four principles of overload?
what is overtraining?
excessive exercise that gives the body more work or stress than it can handle
what are the dangers of overtraining?
- overuse injury (results from repeating the same exercise or activity (eg. tennis elbow))
what are the 6 different types of training method?
- continuous training
- weight training
- fartlek training
- plyometric training
- circuit training
- high-intensity interval training
what is continuous training?
- consists of continuos activities
- no rest intervals
- can be performed at low, moderate or high intensities
- max heart rate between 60 and 80%
- e.g. running, swimming, cycling, rowing
what is the main aim of continuous training?
what are the advantages of continuous training?
- does not require much equipment if any
- good for aerobic exercise
- burns fat
what are the disadvantages of continuous training?
- no anaerobic fitness
- requires motivation
what is weight training?
- involves using free weights, kettle bells, resistance weights
- repetitions are the number of times the weights are lifted
- sets are the number of times a weight activity is carried out
what are the main aims of weight training?
- muscular endurance
what are the advantages of weight training?
- improves muscular strength
- easy to show progression
- muscle size and power increased
what are the disadvantages of weight training?
- can be expensive (gym fees, equipment cost)
- prone to injuries
- specialist equipment may be needed
what is fartlek training?
- involves fast and slow activity over a variety of terrain or hills (running, cycling etc.)
- uses the borg scale for intensity
what are the main aims of fartlek training?
- aerobic endurance
- anaerobic fitness
what are the advantages of fartlek training?
- easily adapted for different sports and fitness levels
- good for sports that have a change of pace
what are the disadvantages of fartlek training?
- difficult to monitor effort
- easy to avoid challenging parts
what is plyometric training?
- eccentric muscle movement
- exercises which exert maximum force in short intervals of time
- e.g. squat jumps, box jumps
what are the main aims of plyometric training?
- explosive strength
what are the advantages of plyometric training?
- over a time a greater force is created when muscle contracts
- provides more energy
- provides fast powerful movement
what are the disadvantages of plyometric training?
- high amount of stress on specific muscles
- no benefit to aerobic fitness
what is circuit training?
- complete exercises for different muscle groups at different stations
- exercise over time or repetition
- the muscle groups should be on alternate stations
- useful for sports teams
what are the main aims of circuit training?
- anaerobic fitness
- muscular endurance
- cardiovascular endurance
what are the advantages of circuit training?
- varied, so doesn't get boring
- easily adapted
- can include skill stations
- doesn't need lots of room or equipment