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Sports Studies Unit 2- Health, fitness and training > Training > Flashcards

Flashcards in Training Deck (49)
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what are the five principles of training?

- specificity
- progression
- overload
- reversibility
- tedium


what is specificity?

training must focus on specific types of activity to improve:
- the type of fitness needed
- particular muscle groups
training may need to be adapted for the individual


what is progression?

happens when the body adapts to the training and moves to a new level of fitness. Progress is achieved through an increase in intensity leading to overload.
- most progression is made early on
- at higher fitness levels, there is less progress
- a plateau may occur when higher levels of fitness are hard to reach


what is overload?

occurs when level of training is raised to a level higher than normal. Your body adapts to these extreme demands.


what is reversibility?

training effects are reversible. If training intensity is reduced or stopped, there can be deterioration of speed, strength and agility. Muscle 'atrophy' (loss of muscle tone) may occur.


what is tedium?

tedium is boredom. Signs of boredom are an important indicator that training needs to be more interesting and useful.


what are the four principles of overload?

- frequency
- intensity
- time
- type


what is overtraining?

excessive exercise that gives the body more work or stress than it can handle


what are the dangers of overtraining?

- overuse injury (results from repeating the same exercise or activity (eg. tennis elbow))
- fatigue


what are the 6 different types of training method?

- continuous training
- weight training
- fartlek training
- plyometric training
- circuit training
- high-intensity interval training


what is continuous training?

- consists of continuos activities
- no rest intervals
- can be performed at low, moderate or high intensities
- max heart rate between 60 and 80%
- e.g. running, swimming, cycling, rowing


what is the main aim of continuous training?

cardiovascular fitness


what are the advantages of continuous training?

- does not require much equipment if any
- good for aerobic exercise
- burns fat


what are the disadvantages of continuous training?

- no anaerobic fitness
- requires motivation


what is weight training?

- involves using free weights, kettle bells, resistance weights
- repetitions are the number of times the weights are lifted
- sets are the number of times a weight activity is carried out


what are the main aims of weight training?

- muscular endurance
- power
- speed
- strength


what are the advantages of weight training?

- improves muscular strength
- easy to show progression
- muscle size and power increased


what are the disadvantages of weight training?

- can be expensive (gym fees, equipment cost)
- prone to injuries
- specialist equipment may be needed


what is fartlek training?

- involves fast and slow activity over a variety of terrain or hills (running, cycling etc.)
- uses the borg scale for intensity


what are the main aims of fartlek training?

- aerobic endurance
- anaerobic fitness


what are the advantages of fartlek training?

- easily adapted for different sports and fitness levels
- good for sports that have a change of pace


what are the disadvantages of fartlek training?

- difficult to monitor effort
- easy to avoid challenging parts


what is plyometric training?

- eccentric muscle movement
- exercises which exert maximum force in short intervals of time
- e.g. squat jumps, box jumps


what are the main aims of plyometric training?

- power
- explosive strength


what are the advantages of plyometric training?

- over a time a greater force is created when muscle contracts
- provides more energy
- provides fast powerful movement


what are the disadvantages of plyometric training?

- high amount of stress on specific muscles
- no benefit to aerobic fitness


what is circuit training?

- complete exercises for different muscle groups at different stations
- exercise over time or repetition
- the muscle groups should be on alternate stations
- useful for sports teams


what are the main aims of circuit training?

- anaerobic fitness
- strength
- muscular endurance
- cardiovascular endurance
- speed


what are the advantages of circuit training?

- varied, so doesn't get boring
- easily adapted
- can include skill stations
- doesn't need lots of room or equipment


what are the disadvantages of circuit training?

- requires time to set up