Flashcards in Health and Well-being Deck (80):
what is the definition of health?
a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, not simply the absence of disease or infirmity
what is physical health and well-being?
being well in the body and free from injury and illness
what is mental health and well-being?
feeling well in the mind, with a positive outlook and a a sense of your own value
what is social health and well-being?
a positive sense of involvement with family, friends and others in the community
what are some aspects of mental well-being?
- feeling good about yourself (high self-esteem)
- being able to cope with stress
- feeling motivated
- being able to control emotions
what are some aspects of social well-being?
- our friendship with others
- gaining support from and giving support to other people
- confidence to mix with people
- feeling valued within society
what are some aspects of physical well-being?
- having a health diet
- doing regular exercise and being physically fit
what are the benefits of working to improve your physical health?
- increases your cardiovascular endurance
- helps you lose weight if you are overweight
- develops body shape and positive body image
what are the benefits of working to improve your mental health?
- improves your approach to tasks and general confidence
- helps you to be active and to feel good about yourself
- stops you from feeling anxious or depressed
what are the benefits of working to improve you social well-being?
- encourages interaction with others, helps you have fun
- helps you make new friends, work to a common goal and gives a sense of belonging
- instils a positive attitude towards cooperating with others
what is the definition of fitness?
the ability to cope with (or meet) the demands of the environment
what are the aspects to maintaining fitness?
- living a health, active lifestyle
- eating a balanced diet
- avoiding habits that reduce fitness (such as smoking)
what are nutrients?
the substances in food that our bodies process in order to survive and grow
what are carbohydrates?
the sugars, starches and fibres found in fruits, grains, vegetables and milk products; the body's main source of energy
what are fats?
an essential part of our diet and a rich source of energy: 1 gram of fat contains 9 calories (compared with only 4 calories in a gram of protein or carbohydrates)
what are proteins?
the building blocks of life found in every cell of the human body; proteins are made up of a chain of smaller units called amino acids; they help your body repair cells and make new ones
what are common sources of carbohydrates?
fruits, breads and grains, starchy vegetables (potatoes), sugars, pasta, rice
what are common sources of fats?
red meats, butter, cooking oils, cheese, bacon
what are common sources of protein?
low-fat meat (chicken), dairy, beans, eggs, fish
what are common sources of water?
drinks, food with high water content (eg. watermelon or soup)
what is the function of carbohydrates?
- provides the body's main source of fuel
- needed for physical activity
- brain function
- operation of the organs
how much of our energy provision is carbohydrates?
up to 55% of our energy intake
what is the function of fats?
provides a very concentrated source of energy that you can store in your body for later use
how much of our energy provision is fats?
up to 30% of our energy intake
what is the function of proteins?
- help body cells grow
- repair cells and muscle tissue
how much of our energy provision is protein?
up to 15% of our energy intake
what is the function of water?
- transporting nutrients to cells
- assists in removing waste products from the body
- helps maintain body temperature
what is a balanced diet?
a diet consisting of a variety of different types of food and providing adequate amounts of the nutrients necessary for good health
what are the reasons for choosing a particular diet?
- health conditions (diabetes or allergy)
- a desire or need to lose or gain weight
- religion or culture
- a regime in sport
what factors effect how much energy a person requires?
what are the health problems related to obesity?
- high blood pressure
- liver disease
- heart disease
what are the problems of being underweight?
- a weakened immune system
- fragile bones
- feeling of tiredness
what are saturated fats?
a type of fat containing a high proportion of fatty acid molecules with double bonds. Less healthy than unsaturated fats
what are unsaturated fats?
a type of fat containing a high proportion of fatty acid molecules with at least one double bond. Healthier than saturated fat
what is respiration?
respiration is a series of reaction in which energy is released from glucose
what is aerobic respiration?
aerobic respiration is the form of respiration which uses oxygen
what is the word equation for aerobic respiration?
glucose+oxygen= carbon dioxide+ water (+energy)
what is anaerobic respiration?
not enough oxygen may reach the muscles during exercise, when this happens they use anaerobic respiration to obtain energy. Anaerobic respiration involves the incomplete breakdown of glucose. The waste product is lactic acid rather than co2 and water
what is the word equation for anaerobic respiration?
glucose= lactic acid+energy
what happens to glucose than is not used?
it is stored as glycogen in the liver and muscles ready for later use
what is health-related fitness?
the components of physical fitness directly related to good health and meeting the demands of everyday life
what is skill-related fitness?
the components of physical fitness that focus on skills and abilities needed to perform successfully in sporting situations
what are the 6 components of health-related fitness?
- cardiovascular endurance
- muscular endurance
what is cardiovascular endurance?
allows you to work for long periods of time with the lungs, heart and blood working efficiently to supply oxygen to the muscles
what is flexibility?
the range of movement around a joint
what is muscular endurance?
the ability of you muscles to work continuously without getting tired
what is power?
being able to perform strength movements at speed
what is speed?
the ability to perform a movement quickly over a distance
what is strength?
the ability to exert the maximum amount of force in one go. This can be explosive or static
what are the 4 components of skill-related fitness?
what is agility?
the ability to change the body position quickly under control
what is balance?
being able to maintain a position, either static (still) or dynamic (moving)
what is coordination?
the ability to use two body parts at the same time
what is reaction?
the time it takes to respond to a stimulus (such as a starting pistol)
what tests are used to measure cardiovascular endurance?
- 12 minute run test (cooper test)
- multi-stage fitness test (bleep test)
what is the cooper test?
you run and/or walk as far as you can in 12 minutes around a track. The fitness level is judged by comparing the distance run to established norms of the tes
what is the multi-stage fitness test?
you perform continuous shuttle runs between two line drawn 20m apart. The pace is established by a recording that sounds a bleep at the end of each leg at the shuttle run. As the test progresses, the time between the bleeps get shorter and a level is indicated. When 3 bleeps in a row are missed, your fitness level has been established. This is a maximal test because you are working as hard as you can
what test measures flexibility?
what is the sit-and-reach test?
this test measures suppleness in the back and hamstrings. You sit on the floor with your legs fully extended, feet flexed and hands touching the sit-and-reach box. You stretch forward (in an even manner, not jerking) with both hands keeping your legs straight and sliding your palms along the box. The distance your fingertips reach beyond your toes is the measurement. If you cannot reach beyond your toes, the distance from the fingertips and toes is measured- this is a negative score
what test can measure muscular endurance?
multi-stage abdominal conditioning test
what is the multi-stage abdominal conditioning test?
over a 30 second period perform as many sit-ups as you can. A partner can time and keep count. Compare results with others or a norm to identify your muscular endurance
what test can be used to measure power?
vertical jump test
what is the vertical jump test?
facing a wall, stretch both arms above your head with your hands side by side so that fingertip level whilst standing can be marked on the wall or a jump board. You then turn sideways to the wall and, with both feet together, jump as high as you can, touching the wall or jump board with the fingertips of one hand. You may swing your arms before jumping if you wish. The distance jumped is the distance between the two marks
what test can be used to measure speed?
what is the 30m sprint test?
the 30m sprint test measures how fast you can run over a short distance. This is a maximal test, as you need to run as fast as you can
what tests can be used to measure strength?
- one-repetition maximum test
- hand-grip dynamometer
what is the one-repetition maximum test?
the 1-RM test is a measure of the greatest weight a person can lift with just one repetition. It is only for advanced weight trainers or athletes and anyone attempting it needs to have a good technique. For reasons of safety the tests should be performed with a spotter. The performer should start with a weight they know they can lift and slowly increase it until they can only complete one full and correct lift of that weight. They should rest between lifts to prevent fatigue in the muscles.
what is the hand-grip dynamometer test?
a hand-grip dynamometer is used to test hand and forearm strength. Before using the dynamometer, check scale is set to 0. You then grip and squeeze as hard as you can. Measurement is shown on the display or read off the dial. Repeat 3 times.
what test can be used to measure agility?
Illinois agility test
what is the Illinois agility test?
you start by lying face down behind the starting line with your chin on the floor. On command, you stand up and run around cones following the set pathway as fast as possible. The measurement is the time take to complete the run which can be compared with established norms.
what test can be used to measure balance?
stork stand test
what is the stork stand test?
In the stork stand test, you stand on one foot and place the other foot against the inside of the knee with hands on hips. Timing starts when both eyes are closed. Timing stops when either you open your eyes, your foot parts from your knee or you lose your balance
what test can be used to measure coordination?
Anderson wall toss test
what is the Anderson wall toss test?
measuring hand-eye coordination, you stand 2m from a wall and toss a tennis ball underarm against the wall with one hand and catch it with the other hand. You immediately throw it back against the wall and catch it in the initial hand. This action is completed throughout a 30 second period. Measurement being the total number of catches.
what test can be used to measure reaction?
metre-ruler drop test
what is the metre-ruler drop test?
a metre ruler is held in the air/ against a wall and you stand with your thumb alongside the 0 (but not touching).Without warning, the ruler is dropped and you must catch it by gripping between thumb and index finger. the measurement is the distance between the bottom of the ruler and the index finger
what is test protocol?
the correct procedure for carrying out a test; if done incorrectly, this might affect the results
what does the term 'valid' mean in context of tests?
the test succeeds in measuring what it sets out to measure: a test for leg strength should not use muscles in the arms
what is VO² max?
the volume of oxygen that can be consumed while exercising at a maximum capacity