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What do small bouts of exercise cause?

Short-term changes in the cardiovascular system.


What do the changes in the cvs ensure?

That the respiring skeletal muscle cells are supplied with oxygen for aerobic respiration


What does physical training and repeated exercise cause?

Long-term changes to the cvs. These are fundamental adaptations that allow the body to cope with increased workload imposed by the training regime


What is cardiac hypertrophy?

The increase of the heart muscle mass during the course of an exercise training programme.


Why does the left ventricle show the greatest increase in size?

Because it is the chamber which supplies the increased demand from the muscles.


Why does the cardiac muscle become thicker?

Because each cell has more contractile elements, thereby increasing the strength of the cardiac muscle.


What is the effect of the stronger heart muscle on the stroke volume?

Larger stroke volume each time the left ventricle contracts.


What is the average change in maximum co between an average person and an athlete?

22litres per minute to 35 litres per minute.


What is the effect on the heart rate by the increased strength of the heart muscle?

Increase in the potential maximal heart rate during exercise.
Heart rate remains lower when workload is increased.
Reduces resting heart rate.


What is the effect on the maximum cardiac output by the increased stroke volume?

Higher maximum cardiac output.


How is myocardial circulation is improved?

By increasing the density of the capillary networks


Where might a denser capillary network also develop?

In the skeletal muscles that are being worked.


What is the effect of the denser capillary network?

The muscles are less likely to become anaerobic.


Why is the recovery time shorter in an athlete than a normal person?

Because there is less build up of lactic acid during exercise.


What is the limiting factor for a muscles performance?

The rate of oxygen uptake.


Why are people with greater aerobic fitness able to work at higher intensities before fatigue sets in?

They have a higher uptake of oxygen into their muscles.


How can you measure aerobic fitness?

By finding VO2 max


What does VO2 max test?

The maximum volume of oxygen used by the person, per kilogram per minute.


What are the two categories for exercise tests?

Maximal and sub-maximal


What is maximal testing?

Monitoring the effectiveness of of training programmes which aim to improve an athletes VO2 max.


Why is medical supervision required when carrying out a VO2 max test.

Because of the health risk of working to exhaustion.


When does the test finish?

When the workload is increased until the oxygen use levels off at its maximum


What is a sub-maximal test?

They use low exercise levels and then extrapolate the data to find an estimate for VO2 max.


Why is sub-maximal testing sometimes used instead of maximal testing?

Can be used to monitor fitness of non-athletes or to monitor the recovery programme for patients with CVD


What other sub-maximal tests exist?

Step tests and bleep tests shuttle runs. The results from these are compared with values obtained from population surveys to give an estimated VO2 max.